Slum Regeneration Bang Bua Bangok


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A presentation on the redevelopment of the canal commnity in Bangkok

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Slum Regeneration Bang Bua Bangok

  1. 1. Bang Bua Canal [ Before]
  2. 2. What is a Canal ? <ul><li>Canals are artificial channels for water. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of canals: </li></ul><ul><li>1. water conveyance canals, which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water. --> Aquaducts </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>2. waterways, which are navigable transportation canals used for passage of goods and people, often connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where is Bang Bua Canal ?! <ul><li>Bang Bua Canal is located in South east Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The country it is in is called Thailand - as shown by the 2 maps above. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific location is about 10 Km’s north of Bangkok; the Capital of the nation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Location of Bang Bua in Bangkok
  5. 5. Why is there a Canal in Bangkok ? Bangkok was a small trading post at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River during the Ayutthaya Kingdom. It came to the forefront of Thailand when it was given the status as the capital city in 1768 after the burning of Ayutthaya, the former capital of Siam, the now called Thailand. The canals in Bangkok were vital to it’s economy - especially in it’s past when trade was the key to success and water transportaion was the most efficient mode of transporting goods and people around. Fundamentally, Bangkok became the capital city partially due to it’s strong nodal point characteristics. ( CLOSE TO SEA = EASY TRADING/TRANSPORT ) Ayutthaya, 1700’s Bangkok, 2009 =>
  6. 6. General facts . <ul><li>An elaborate network of canals known as khlongs gave Bangkok the nickname &quot;Venice of the East&quot; at a time when most transportation was by boat. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, nearly all of the canals have been filled in and converted into streets. </li></ul><ul><li>While many khlongs still exist with people living along them and markets often being operated along the banks, most are severely polluted - Such as Bang Bua canal. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A little background on the upgrading of Bang Bua canal . <ul><li>About 3,400 families live in the 12 informal settlements which line the 13 kilometre stretch of Bangkok Bang Bua Canal, many of them vendors, laborers and daily-wage workers. </li></ul><ul><li>After almost a century of living in insecurity, with the daily risk of fires and eviction, and facing constant accusations of polluting the canal, the people living along the Bang Bua canal joined hands with the Baan Mankong Program to upgrade their communities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How life used to be . { quotes } <ul><li>Khun Prapaat (Bang Bua Network leader) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ We were a real slum before! There were drugs for sale, and lots of outside organizations did their drugs trading here. There were kids sniffing glue and paint thinner.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Back then, a lot of the houses were built on stilts right over the canal, and when one of these houses would collapse - which happened a lot - we would say, th at is your problem, not mine!” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Old Housing ~ < This was what the houses along Bang Bua looked like prior to renovation. Entire families had to live in one of these shacks ! There are many valid reasons for these houses to be replanned and rebuilt. Some reasons include :- <ul><li>Inadequate space for an acceptable standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to flash floods during monsoon season </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely poor sanitation system </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere was a breeding ground for crime related deeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor safety for residents in terms of access to public protection (FIRE brigade) </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of community spirit and sense of belonging. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses are aesthetically unattractive, creating low esteem levels amongst locals. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bang Bua Canal [ The Regeneration ]
  11. 11. Table of Contents <ul><li>Klong Bang Bua scheme </li></ul><ul><li>ACHR </li></ul><ul><li>CODI </li></ul><ul><li>Baan Mankong </li></ul>
  12. 12. Klong Bang Bua Scheme <ul><li>Aim : </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce fire hazards, eviction rates and accusation of canal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communities and increase land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Background on planned improvements: </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate a long term lease to the public land that the canal communities occupy </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease rental rate to 1 baht per meter per month (40-70 baht per month) </li></ul><ul><li>Each family in the community must pay the treasury department </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to improve? <ul><li>The Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Due to houses built over the water, the canal was inaccessible to people and the only way in the canal is in the dangerous wooden walkways made of bamboo and cheap wood. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canal Water </li></ul><ul><li>Raised awareness of water problem, events and gathering were setup (canal cleanups, presentations) </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of septic tanks, which cleans the waste before it is discharged into the main drainage system </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of kitchen grease filters which filters dirty kitchen water before going to the drain system </li></ul><ul><li>Water Treatment </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of new housing built : Detached house, twin houses and row houses </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled building materials were used = cost-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare housing and Welfare support for the extremely poor </li></ul><ul><li>Housing for renters </li></ul><ul><li>Houses built by the people of the community = cost efficient + experience </li></ul>
  15. 17. ACHR <ul><li>ACHR is the Asian Coalition of Housing Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1988 by a group of professionals and social activists </li></ul><ul><li>ACHR is a part of the Homeless International, an organization that focuses on urban poverty issues in the developing world </li></ul><ul><li>The ACHR tackles the issue of forced evictions, develop opportunities and organisations for the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the poor’s place in the city planning </li></ul>
  16. 18. ACHR in Bangbua <ul><li>The ACHR is a detached organization that assists and sponsors several of the regeneration projects in Bang Bua. </li></ul><ul><li>The SUF team is led by an ACHR former member </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the project’s awareness through internet and various media </li></ul>
  17. 19. CODI <ul><li>Community Organisation Development Institution </li></ul><ul><li>A public organisation underneath the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security </li></ul><ul><li>The CODI has various aims : </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting and assisting community organizations’ career development </li></ul><ul><li>Increased style of life in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a strong community in many areas </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic improvement of slums into proper communities </li></ul>
  18. 20. CODI in Bang Bua <ul><li>The CODI had several roles in the regeneration of Klong Bang Bua and the Baan Mankong Project </li></ul><ul><li>Roles such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Provider of loans and various subsidies to help fund the projects </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a middle man between the central government and the communities (plans, ideas, money etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Handles the upgrading budget </li></ul><ul><li>Assists the Baan Mankong Project </li></ul>
  19. 21. Baan Mankong Project <ul><li>An organisation setup by the Thai government to address housing problems on Thailand’s poorest urban citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims of Project </li></ul><ul><li>C reate land security for the urban poor </li></ul><ul><li>Develop basic infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the community process and the community organization </li></ul>
  20. 22. Tactics for Improvement <ul><li>Slum upgrading </li></ul><ul><li>Re-blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Land sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation </li></ul>
  21. 23. Main Concepts of the Program <ul><li>1. To solve housing, environmental and tenure problems in the country's already-existing slums. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To create housing security for all of Thailand's urban poor. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To develop systems to deliver basic services to poor settlements as a basic right. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To construct secure and &quot;livable&quot; dwellings and settlements for all the country's urban poor. </li></ul><ul><li>5. To link the process of developing secure housing and settlements with a larger and more comprehensive process of community development, which encompasses other aspects such as economics, environment and health. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Community people and community networks will be the main implementers of the program, with the support of local development organizations </li></ul><ul><li>7. The housing and community development plans in each city will be developed in close connection with other areas of community development. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Central organizations will support local community organizations and the local mechanism through the distribution of budgets. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Outcomes <ul><li>No one got pushed out of the community in the regeneration process, not even the renters </li></ul><ul><li>Houses built without loans, recycled materials were used = no debt to community </li></ul><ul><li>Canal cleaned </li></ul><ul><li>Canal walkway built for easy access </li></ul><ul><li>Effective water treatment techniques implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Better living conditions </li></ul>
  23. 25. Bang Bua Canal [ After]
  24. 26. The Project <ul><li>The Bang Bua canal is a large canal in the northern part of Bangkok, which used to be used for boat transport through the city </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first case in Bangkok where all the communities along a major canal have come together, formed a network and developed their own plans for redeveloping the whole area: housing, infrastructure, environment, canal water quality, etc… </li></ul>
  25. 27. The Project <ul><li>There are 112 households in this community. The reconstruction is planned in three phases : </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase 1: build 14 houses </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase 2 : Build 37 – 40 houses </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase 3 : build 35 houses </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 112 units </li></ul>
  26. 28. Positive Outcomes <ul><li>New Households: Under reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Collected from filters : Sold to make candles </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Pak boong (kind of vegetable): cleans water in natural way, available to eat, and to sell </li></ul>
  27. 29. Positive Outcomes <ul><li>Community health centre </li></ul><ul><li>Filter tank for houses </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism increased (floating market) </li></ul><ul><li>3-meter street along canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars (if necessary) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Positive Outcomes <ul><li>Eventually, all the families will rebuild their houses, according to the redevelopment plans, except for five very poor families, who don't want to take on any debts, who will stay in their old houses. </li></ul><ul><li>People in the community will no longer be afraid of being evicted – by city officials, by government plans or by fire. They feel like nobody can kick them out from this place, because now they have long-term lease for the land. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Negative Outcomes <ul><li>Boats are no longer able to run along the canal </li></ul><ul><li>The walkway will not only be kept open for pedestrian use </li></ul>
  30. 32. Negative Outcomes <ul><li>Gentrification may occur : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area becoming too expensive to afford for locals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cost for the development was expensive (144, 945 Baht) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap materials were used for households: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems may result because of this later on </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>~The End~ </li></ul>