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Stems

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  • 1. Stems Presented by : Geonyzl L. Alviola
  • 2. Stem
    • Function for both supportive organs and conductive organ
    • It is a shoot associated with other plant organs like leaves, flower, fruit
    • It develops from the epicotyl of the embryo (in the seed)‏
  • 3.
    • Review on the parts of the plants:
    • 1. Leaf primordium = an immature leaf of the shoot.
  • 4.
    • 2. Node = the point of attachment of a leaf to a stem
  • 5.
    • 3. Internode = the region between two adjacent nodes
  • 6. Stem types
  • 7.
    • Modification of the stem would depend on the need of the plant to survive…
    • … like the animals it learns how to adapt .
  • 8.
    • Stem modifications for storage and protection
    • a. rootstock = a general term for an underground stem or shoot that later will give rise to aerial shoot.
    • = remain alive underground during harsh condition
  • 9. Different types of Rootstock
    • Bulb – consist of small amount of vertical stem and a massive quantity of thick, fleshy storage leaves.
    • - most of them consist of concentric rings of scales attached to a basal plate.
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Other bulbous plants Daffodil Reticulate iris
  • 13.
    • 2. Corm - formed from a swollen bases of stems.
    • - A corm consists of one or more internodes with at least one growing point.
  • 14.  
  • 15. Examples of Corm Crocuses Gladioli
  • 16.
    • 3. Caudex = the rootstock consist of a relatively undifferentiated but vertically oriented stem.
    • = generally called “fat plants”
    Adenium obesum – family Apocynaceae (a relative of Calachuchi)‏
  • 17. Other caudiciform plants Ibervillea Trochomeria
  • 18.
    • 4. Rhizome= the stem is horizontal and underground with short internodes and bearing with scale-like leaves
    ginger
  • 19. Other rhizome plants Johnsongrass Sorghum halepense Cogon grass Imperata cylindrica
  • 20.
    • 5. Tuber = a thick under ground storage stem, usually not upright
    • = bearing outer buds
    • = lacking protective scales
  • 21. Main plant parts are: haulm (foliage), tubers and roots.
  • 22. Other Types of Stems
    • Stolon / runner = with long internodes just below the surface of the ground that typically terminating in a new plant
    • = use for propagation
  • 23. Plants with stolon
  • 24. Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ).
  • 25.
    • Cladode
    • = resemble like a leaf
    • = a photosynthetic stem
    • = flatten in appearance
    • = reduce water loss
  • 26.
    • Thorn – is a sharp pointed stem.
    • - serve as protective structure of the plant.
  • 27.
    • Scape = “naked” , lacking vegetative leaves
    • = generally arising from basal rosette of vegetative leaves
    • = the stem-like, flowering stalk of a plant with radical or rosulate leaves.
  • 28. Primula vulgaris Primula eliator
  • 29.
    • Culm = refers to the flowering and fruiting stems.
  • 30.
    • Tiller = are segmented, each possessing two part leaf
    • = involve in vegetative propagation
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • Pseudobulb
    • = short erect aerial storage or propagative stem
  • 33. Stem Habit
    • Describing the relative position of the stem or shoot.
    • 1.Caulescent – a plant with above ground stem. upright aerial stem with the leaves arising from all or some of the nodes on the above-ground stems
  • 34.
    • 2. acaulescent – plants that bear photosynthetic leaves at ground level.
    Yucca
  • 35.
    • 3. Frutescent = a shrub with n umerous woody, aerial trunks
    Mimosa
  • 36.
    • Arborescent- tree like in appearance and size.
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