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  1. 1. Stems Presented by : Geonyzl L. Alviola
  2. 2. Stem <ul><li>Function for both supportive organs and conductive organ </li></ul><ul><li>It is a shoot associated with other plant organs like leaves, flower, fruit </li></ul><ul><li>It develops from the epicotyl of the embryo (in the seed)‏ </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Review on the parts of the plants: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Leaf primordium = an immature leaf of the shoot. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Node = the point of attachment of a leaf to a stem </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. Internode = the region between two adjacent nodes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stem types
  7. 7. <ul><li>Modification of the stem would depend on the need of the plant to survive… </li></ul><ul><li>… like the animals it learns how to adapt . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Stem modifications for storage and protection </li></ul><ul><li>a. rootstock = a general term for an underground stem or shoot that later will give rise to aerial shoot. </li></ul><ul><li>= remain alive underground during harsh condition </li></ul>
  9. 9. Different types of Rootstock <ul><li>Bulb – consist of small amount of vertical stem and a massive quantity of thick, fleshy storage leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>- most of them consist of concentric rings of scales attached to a basal plate. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Other bulbous plants Daffodil Reticulate iris
  11. 13. <ul><li>2. Corm - formed from a swollen bases of stems. </li></ul><ul><li>- A corm consists of one or more internodes with at least one growing point. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Examples of Corm Crocuses Gladioli
  13. 16. <ul><li>3. Caudex = the rootstock consist of a relatively undifferentiated but vertically oriented stem. </li></ul><ul><li>= generally called “fat plants” </li></ul>Adenium obesum – family Apocynaceae (a relative of Calachuchi)‏
  14. 17. Other caudiciform plants Ibervillea Trochomeria
  15. 18. <ul><li>4. Rhizome= the stem is horizontal and underground with short internodes and bearing with scale-like leaves </li></ul>ginger
  16. 19. Other rhizome plants Johnsongrass Sorghum halepense Cogon grass Imperata cylindrica
  17. 20. <ul><li>5. Tuber = a thick under ground storage stem, usually not upright </li></ul><ul><li>= bearing outer buds </li></ul><ul><li>= lacking protective scales </li></ul>
  18. 21. Main plant parts are: haulm (foliage), tubers and roots.
  19. 22. Other Types of Stems <ul><li>Stolon / runner = with long internodes just below the surface of the ground that typically terminating in a new plant </li></ul><ul><li>= use for propagation </li></ul>
  20. 23. Plants with stolon
  21. 24. Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ).
  22. 25. <ul><li>Cladode </li></ul><ul><li>= resemble like a leaf </li></ul><ul><li>= a photosynthetic stem </li></ul><ul><li>= flatten in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>= reduce water loss </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Thorn – is a sharp pointed stem. </li></ul><ul><li>- serve as protective structure of the plant. </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Scape = “naked” , lacking vegetative leaves </li></ul><ul><li>= generally arising from basal rosette of vegetative leaves </li></ul><ul><li>= the stem-like, flowering stalk of a plant with radical or rosulate leaves. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Primula vulgaris Primula eliator
  26. 29. <ul><li>Culm = refers to the flowering and fruiting stems. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Tiller = are segmented, each possessing two part leaf </li></ul><ul><li>= involve in vegetative propagation </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Pseudobulb </li></ul><ul><li>= short erect aerial storage or propagative stem </li></ul>
  29. 33. Stem Habit <ul><li>Describing the relative position of the stem or shoot. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Caulescent – a plant with above ground stem. upright aerial stem with the leaves arising from all or some of the nodes on the above-ground stems </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>2. acaulescent – plants that bear photosynthetic leaves at ground level. </li></ul>Yucca
  31. 35. <ul><li>3. Frutescent = a shrub with n umerous woody, aerial trunks </li></ul>Mimosa
  32. 36. <ul><li>Arborescent- tree like in appearance and size. </li></ul>