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Plant  tissues
 

Plant tissues

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    Plant  tissues Plant tissues Presentation Transcript

    • Plant Tissues Chapter 26 Jin Hoe Huh March 28, 2005
    • Angiosperms – flowering plants
      • The angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants
      • In terms of distribution and diversity, they are the most successful plants on Earth
      • The structure and function of this plant group help explain its success
    • Flowering Plant Life Cycle Double fertilization Meiosis Meiosis microspores Female gametophyte pollination Mitosis without cytoplasmic division Two sperm s enter ovule Diploid Haploid
    • Plant Life Histories
      • Annuals complete life cycle in one growing season
      • Biennials live for two seasons; flowers form in second season
      • Perennials grow and produce seeds year after year
    • Shoot System Root System
      • Root system
      • anchors the plant
      • penetrates the soil and absorbs water and minerals
      • stores food
      • Shoot system
      • produces sugars by photosynthesis
      • carries out reproduction
      Shoot and Root Systems
    • water & minerals sugar SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM Shoot and root systems are interdependent
    • Plant Tissue Systems VASCULAR TISSUES GROUND TISSUES SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM EPIDERMIS
      • Ground tissue system
      • Vascular tissue system
      • Dermal tissue system
    • Meristems – Where Tissues Originate
      • Regions where cell divisions produce plant growth
      • Apical meristems
        • Lengthen stems and roots
        • Responsible for primary growth
      • Lateral meristems
        • Increase width of stems
        • Responsible for secondary growth
    • Apical Meristems activity at meristems new cells elongate and start to differentiate into primary tissues procambium  primary vascular tissues protoderm  epidermis Cells that form at apical meristems : ground meristem  ground tissues Lengthen shoots and roots: SAM and RAM
    • Lateral Meristems vascular cambium  secondary vascular tissues periderm  cork cambium thickening Increases girth of older roots and stems Cylindrical arrays of cells
    • Simple Tissues
      • Made up of only one type of cell
      • Parenchyma
      • Collenchyma
      • Sclerenchyma
    • collenchyma parenchyma sclerenchyma Morphology of three simple tissue types
    • Parenchyma: A Simple Tissue
      • Comprises most of a plant’s soft primary growth
      • Cells are pliable, thin walled, many sided
      • Cells remain alive at maturity and retain capacity to divide
      • Mesophyll is a type of parenchyma that contains chloroplasts
    • Collenchyma: A Simple Tissue
      • Specialized for support for primary tissues
      • Cells are elongated, with walls (especially corners) thickened with pectin
      • Makes stems strong but pliable
      • Cells are alive at maturity
    • Sc l er enchyma: A Simple Tissue
      • Supports mature plant parts
      • Protects many seeds
      • Cells have thick, lignified walls and are dead at maturity
      • Two types:
        • Fibers: Long, tapered cells
        • Sclereids: Stubbier cells
    • Complex Tissues
      • Composed of a mix of cell types
      • Xylem
      • Phloem
      • Epidermis
    • Xylem
      • Conducts water and dissolved minerals
      • Conducting cells are dead and hollow at maturity
      vessel member tracheids
    • Phloem: A Complex Vascular Tissue
      • Transports sugars
      • Main conducting cells are sieve-tube members
      • Companion cells assist in the loading of sugars
      sieve plate sieve-tube member companion cell
    • Epidermis: A Complex Plant Tissue
      • - Covers and protects plant surfaces
      • - Secretes a waxy, waterproof cuticle
      • - In plants with secondary growth, periderm replaces epidermis
    • Monocots and Dicots – same tissues, different features Parallel veins Netlike veins 3 pores 1 pore 4 or 5 floral parts 3 floral parts 1 cotyledon 2 cotyledons Vascular bundles dispersed Vascular bundles in ring
    • Shoot Development ground meristem primary xylem pith procambrium cortex procambrium protoderm shoot apical meristem primary phloem
    • Bud = undeveloped shoot of meristematic tissue Internode Leaves Axillary bud at node Longitudinal section of terminal bud
    • Roots also have meristems
    • Internal Structure of a Dicot Stem
      • - Outermost layer is epidermis
      • - Cortex lies beneath epidermis
      • - Ring of vascular bundles separates the cortex from the pith
      • - The pith lies in the center of the stem
    • Internal Structure of a Monocot Stem
      • The vascular bundles are distributed throughout the ground tissue
      • No division of ground tissue into cortex and pith
    • Dicots
      • Dicots and Monocots have different stem and root anatomies
      Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system Dermal tissue system Monocots
    • Leaf Gross Structure petiole blade axillary bud node blade sheath node DICOT MONOCOT
    • Adapted for Photosynthesis
      • Leaves are usually thin
        • High surface area-to-volume ratio
        • Promotes diffusion of carbon dioxide in, oxygen out
      • Leaves are arranged to capture sunlight
        • Are held perpendicular to rays of sun
        • Arrange so they don’t shade one another
    • Leaf Structure UPPER EPIDERMIS PALISADE MESOPHYLL SPONGY MESOPHYLL LOWER EPIDERMIS one stoma cuticle O 2 CO 2 xylem phloem
    • Mesophyll: Photosynthetic Tissue
      • A type of parenchyma tissue
      • Cells have chloroplasts
      • Two layers in dicots
        • Palisade mesophyll
        • Spongy mesophyll
    • Parenchyma Collenchyma
    • Leaf Veins: Vascular Bundles
      • Xylem and phloem – often strengthened with fibers
      • In dicots, veins are netlike
      • In monocots, they are parallel
    • Root Systems
    • Root Structure
      • Root cap covers tip
      • Apical meristem produces the cap
      • Cell divisions at the apical meristem cause the root to lengthen
      • Farther up, cells differentiate and mature
      root apical meristem root cap
    • Internal Structure of a Root
      • Outermost layer is epidermis
      • Root cortex is beneath the epidermis
      • Endodermis, then pericycle surround the vascular cylinder
      • In some plants, there is a central pith
    • pericycle phloem xylem root hair endodermis epidermis cortex
    • Root Hairs and Lateral Roots
      • Both increase the surface area of a root system
      • Root hairs are tiny extensions of epidermal cells
      • Lateral roots arise from the pericycle and must push through the cortex and epidermis to reach the soil
      new lateral root
    • Secondary Growth
      • Occurs in perennials
      • A ring of vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem
      • Wood is the accumulation of these secondary tissues, especially xylem
    • Secondary Growth
    • Woody Stem periderm (consists of cork, cork cambium, and secondary cortex) secondary phloem BARK HEARTWOOD SAPWOOD vascular cambium
    • Annual Rings
      • Concentric rings of secondary xylem
      • Alternating bands of early and late wood
      • Early wood
        • Xylem cells with large diameter, thin walls
      • Late wood
        • Xylem cells with smaller diameter, thicker walls
    • Types of Wood
      • Hardwood (oak, hickory)
        • Dicot wood
        • Xylem composed of vessels, tracheids, and fibers
      • Softwood (pine, redwood)
        • Gymnosperm wood
        • Xylem composed mostly of tracheids
        • Grows more quickly