Morphology Of The  Flower Part 2
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Morphology Of The Flower Part 2






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Morphology Of The  Flower Part 2 Morphology Of The Flower Part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Types of flowers Part 2
  • According to corolla Symmetry
    • Sympetalous –
    • when petals are joined partly or wholly
    • flower has connate petals. In such a corolla, one can distinguish different parts:
    • - the floral tube,
    • - the throat, and
    • - the lobes
    • 2.Polypetalous
    • - The petals are not joined
  • 3. Actinomorphic (corolla)
    • This flower of is actinomorphic ( regular ). This means that the flower has a radial symmetry — it can be divided into two equal halves by two or more planes (5 here, shown by the yellow lines).
    • These are further classified as funnel shaped,
    • tubular shaped and
    • campanulate (narrower than tubular, a bell like shape).
    • Examples of families: Poppy family, cruciform and rose family are few notable examples of actinomorphic morphology.
  • Crassula argentea
  • Here is another example of actinomorphic flower. In this case the floral parts are numerous. This example is a water lily ( Nymphaea cultivar).
  • 4. Zygomorphic (irregular) flower
    • has a bilateral symmetry — it can be divided in two equal halves by only one plane, as shown by the red line passing through this flower of Viola tricolor
  • Orchids have zygomorphic flowers . Here again, the flower can be cut into two symmetrical halves by only one plane, along the red line .
  • Perianth shape (usually applied to corolla, but may be applied to calyx)
    • Rotate
    • - shallow and relatively flat or dish-shaped
  • 2. bilabiate
    • (means "two-lipped") corolla is a zygomorphic, sympetalous corolla with the limb divided into two lips.
    Lamium purpureum
    • 3. Stellate
    • = star-shaped  (this is not as commonly used as some other terms)
    Allium ursinum
    • 4. Urceolate
    • = urn-shaped; somewhat flared out or inflated and then narrowed at the opening
    • 5. Campanulate
    • = bell-shaped, with the segments gently flaring
    • 6. Tubular
    • = parts fused into a usually slender, uniform tube, usually with the free tips proportionately small and/or only slightly spreading
    Cuphea ignea
    • free tips proportionately small
    • only slightly spreading
    • 7. Funnelform
    • = with parts fused into a tube that widens gradually from base to tip
    • 8. Salverform
    • = with a narrow tube and an abruptly expanded, spreading portion which is often called the limb. 
    • 9. Geniculate
    • = with an "elbow" or bend where the perianth changes direction suddenly
    • 10. Papilionaceous
    • = from the French word for "butterfly."  Applied to members of the Fabaceae in which the flower has one large petal , the banner or standard , two similar side petals called wings , and two folded or usually fused-together lower petals called the keel.  
    • 11. Spurred
    • = with a spur-- a hollow, usually nectar-bearing, backward or downward extension of a sepal or petal.  A flower may have more than one. Spurs may be short as in Viola (spur is at the top of the flower, behind the pedicel)
    • More than one
    • 12. Ligulate or Ray
    • = zygomorphic and with all the petals pulled to one side into a flat, strap-like structure.  Typical of the sunflower family, e.g., the "petals" of a daisy
  • Placentation Types Placentation refers to the pattern of attachment of ovules within the ovary.
  • 1. Marginal
    • ovules arranged along the suture of a single, simple pistil (cross-section)
    • In monocarpous and apocarpous gynoecia (i.e. carpels distinct), the ovules are arranged along the suture of the carpel.
    • There is one locule per carpel, no septum (see definition on next slide). This is called marginal placentation .
    • 2. Axile
    • a separate locule for each carpel and the ovules attached to placentae in the middle where the septa come together (cross-section)
    • In a syncarpous gynoecium, there can be one or more locules, and various possible types of placentation. This can be observed on cross- and lateral sections of the ovary.
    • A septum (= "wall") is an interior wall which separates the locules when two or more chambers occur. The presence of septa is characteristic of axile placentation.
    • 3. Parietal
    • = ovules attached to the wall of a unilocular ovary (cross-section
    • there is no septum, so that the ovary is unilocular. The ovules are borne on the inner surface of the ovary walls (or extensions of the walls).
    • 4. Free-central
    • = ovules attached to a peg or stalk that arises from the ovary floor but which does not reach the roof; ovules usually few to many (long-section)
    • 5. Basal
    • = ovules attached to the floor of the ovary (long-section)
    • one or more ovules are attached to the bottom of the ovary. This situation is found for example in some Portulacaceae like Portulaca (photo on the left; the yellow arrow is pointing to the ovules) or in Talinum (close up on the right; the black arrow is pointing to the placenta). The ovary is unilocular.
    • 6. Apical placentation : one or more ovules are attached at the top of the ovary. The ovary is unilocular
  • The end