Morphology Of The Flower Part 2


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Morphology Of The Flower Part 2

  1. 1. Types of flowers Part 2
  2. 2. According to corolla Symmetry <ul><li>Sympetalous – </li></ul><ul><li> when petals are joined partly or wholly </li></ul><ul><li>flower has connate petals. In such a corolla, one can distinguish different parts: </li></ul><ul><li>- the floral tube, </li></ul><ul><li>- the throat, and </li></ul><ul><li>- the lobes </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2.Polypetalous </li></ul><ul><li>- The petals are not joined </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3. Actinomorphic (corolla) <ul><li>This flower of is actinomorphic ( regular ). This means that the flower has a radial symmetry — it can be divided into two equal halves by two or more planes (5 here, shown by the yellow lines). </li></ul><ul><li>These are further classified as funnel shaped, </li></ul><ul><li>tubular shaped and </li></ul><ul><li>campanulate (narrower than tubular, a bell like shape). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of families: Poppy family, cruciform and rose family are few notable examples of actinomorphic morphology. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Crassula argentea
  6. 6. Here is another example of actinomorphic flower. In this case the floral parts are numerous. This example is a water lily ( Nymphaea cultivar).
  7. 7. 4. Zygomorphic (irregular) flower <ul><li>has a bilateral symmetry — it can be divided in two equal halves by only one plane, as shown by the red line passing through this flower of Viola tricolor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Orchids have zygomorphic flowers . Here again, the flower can be cut into two symmetrical halves by only one plane, along the red line .
  9. 9. Perianth shape (usually applied to corolla, but may be applied to calyx) <ul><li>Rotate </li></ul><ul><li>- shallow and relatively flat or dish-shaped </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. bilabiate <ul><li>(means &quot;two-lipped&quot;) corolla is a zygomorphic, sympetalous corolla with the limb divided into two lips. </li></ul>Lamium purpureum
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. Stellate </li></ul><ul><li>= star-shaped  (this is not as commonly used as some other terms) </li></ul>Allium ursinum
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Urceolate </li></ul><ul><li>= urn-shaped; somewhat flared out or inflated and then narrowed at the opening </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>5. Campanulate </li></ul><ul><li>= bell-shaped, with the segments gently flaring </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>6. Tubular </li></ul><ul><li>= parts fused into a usually slender, uniform tube, usually with the free tips proportionately small and/or only slightly spreading </li></ul>Cuphea ignea
  15. 15. <ul><li>free tips proportionately small </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>only slightly spreading </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>7. Funnelform </li></ul><ul><li>= with parts fused into a tube that widens gradually from base to tip </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>8. Salverform </li></ul><ul><li>= with a narrow tube and an abruptly expanded, spreading portion which is often called the limb.  </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>9. Geniculate </li></ul><ul><li>= with an &quot;elbow&quot; or bend where the perianth changes direction suddenly </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>10. Papilionaceous </li></ul><ul><li>= from the French word for &quot;butterfly.&quot;  Applied to members of the Fabaceae in which the flower has one large petal , the banner or standard , two similar side petals called wings , and two folded or usually fused-together lower petals called the keel.   </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>11. Spurred </li></ul><ul><li>= with a spur-- a hollow, usually nectar-bearing, backward or downward extension of a sepal or petal.  A flower may have more than one. Spurs may be short as in Viola (spur is at the top of the flower, behind the pedicel) </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>More than one </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>12. Ligulate or Ray </li></ul><ul><li>= zygomorphic and with all the petals pulled to one side into a flat, strap-like structure.  Typical of the sunflower family, e.g., the &quot;petals&quot; of a daisy </li></ul>
  24. 27. Placentation Types Placentation refers to the pattern of attachment of ovules within the ovary.
  25. 28. 1. Marginal <ul><li>ovules arranged along the suture of a single, simple pistil (cross-section) </li></ul><ul><li>In monocarpous and apocarpous gynoecia (i.e. carpels distinct), the ovules are arranged along the suture of the carpel. </li></ul><ul><li>There is one locule per carpel, no septum (see definition on next slide). This is called marginal placentation . </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>2. Axile </li></ul><ul><li>a separate locule for each carpel and the ovules attached to placentae in the middle where the septa come together (cross-section) </li></ul><ul><li>In a syncarpous gynoecium, there can be one or more locules, and various possible types of placentation. This can be observed on cross- and lateral sections of the ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>A septum (= &quot;wall&quot;) is an interior wall which separates the locules when two or more chambers occur. The presence of septa is characteristic of axile placentation. </li></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>3. Parietal </li></ul><ul><li>= ovules attached to the wall of a unilocular ovary (cross-section </li></ul><ul><li>there is no septum, so that the ovary is unilocular. The ovules are borne on the inner surface of the ovary walls (or extensions of the walls). </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>4. Free-central </li></ul><ul><li>= ovules attached to a peg or stalk that arises from the ovary floor but which does not reach the roof; ovules usually few to many (long-section) </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>5. Basal </li></ul><ul><li>= ovules attached to the floor of the ovary (long-section) </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>one or more ovules are attached to the bottom of the ovary. This situation is found for example in some Portulacaceae like Portulaca (photo on the left; the yellow arrow is pointing to the ovules) or in Talinum (close up on the right; the black arrow is pointing to the placenta). The ovary is unilocular. </li></ul>
  31. 39. <ul><li>6. Apical placentation : one or more ovules are attached at the top of the ovary. The ovary is unilocular </li></ul>
  32. 40. The end