Morphoanatomy Of  The  Flower
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Morphoanatomy Of The Flower

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Morphoanatomy Of The Flower Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Morphoanatomy of the Flower
  • 2. Parts of a Flower
    • Pedicel -the stalk of an individual flower
  • 3.
    • Sepal --one member of the outermost whorl of a flower. Collectively, the sepals make up the calyx . The sepals may be free or fused.
  • 4.
    • Petal --one member of the second whorl of a flower. Collectively, the petals make up the corolla . The petals may be free (the flower then termed polypetalous) or fused into one piece (the flower then termed sympetalous).
  • 5.
    • Perianth --the calyx and corolla together
  • 6.
    • Calyx
    Corolla
  • 7.
    • Stamen --one member of the whorl of male sex parts. The part of the flower that produces pollen. This consists of two parts . The anther or top of the stamen actually produces the pollen. the anther is held aloft by a filament which is like a stem of the stamen.
  • 8.
    • Each stamen consists of a filament and anther , where pollen is produced. Collectively, the stamens make up the androecium androecium
    1. Tetradynamous - refers to four long and two short stamens in one flower Types of Stamens
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • 2. Monadelphous --refers to stamens united by the filaments into one column
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • 3. Diadelphous --refers to stamens united by the filaments into two groups--often 1 in one group and 9 in another
    Corydalis flavula
  • 13. Desmodium laevigatum
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Carpel
    • - one member of the whorl of female sex parts.
    • - Collectively, the carpels make up the gynoecium .
    • - Each carpel consists of an ovary connected to a
    • s tigma by a style .
    • - The stigma is receptive to pollen. Within the ovary, on the placentae (sing., placenta ) are one or more ovules , which will mature into seeds.
    • - The open spaces inside the ovary are called locules or cells . The dividing walls are called septa .
  • 17.  
  • 18.
    • Carpel = inserted above the stamens,
    • = uppermost floral organ
    • = consist of Stigma, Style and Pistil
    • which is collectively called
    • Gynoecium
  • 19.
    • Stigma - Tip of the carpel, receptive to
    • pollen
    • Ovary - Base of the carpel, contains Ovules
    • Style - Connects the Stigma to the Ovary
  • 20. Types of Carpels
    • 1. Apocarpous
    • - The flower is said to have many simple pistils
    • - A gynoecium of many separate carpels
    Crassula
  • 21.  
  • 22. Magnolia
  • 23.
    • 2. Syncarpous
    • = A gynoecium of many fused carpels
    • = The flower is said to have a compound pistil
    Saxafraga
  • 24.  
  • 25. Poppy
  • 26. 3. monocarpous
    • In the very center of the flower is a single carpel . A carpel is the basic unit of a gynoecium.
    • This flower only has one carpel , and flowers like this are said to have a monocarpous gynoecium .
  • 27.  
  • 28.
    • 4. Unicarpellate
    • - gynoecium with only one carpel
    • - The flower has a simple pistil
  • 29. hypanthium
    • A hypanthium (= floral cup) is a structure derived by the adnation of the perianth bases and stamens. It can be variously shaped. This is a line drawing corresponding to a longitudinal section of a Prunus ( cherry) flower.
  • 30.  
  • 31. Ovary Position
    • 1. Hypogynous --The flower is hypogynous if the ovary is situated above the calyx and there is no floral cup around it. The ovary is superior .
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • 2. Perigynous
    • -The flower is perigynous if the ovary is situated within (and free from) a floral cup or hypanthium . The ovary is superior .
    When the perianth and the stamens arise from a hypanthium that is NOT adnate to a superior ovary, the insertion is said to be perigynous , as in this longitudinal section of a flower of black cherry Prunus serotina.
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.
    • 3. Epigynous
    • --The flower is epigynous if the ovary is situated below the calyx. The ovary is inferior . (In the graphic example, the calyx is pink and the flower hangs upside down.)
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Inflorescence
    • An inflorescence may be defined as a cluster of flowers, all flowers arising from the main stem axis or peduncle :
  • 41. cyme
  • 42. Different types of inflorescences
    • A catkin
    • - a spike-like inflorescence (i.e. the flowers do not have a pedicel and the main axis is elongated and unbranched) which has only male or female flowers. They occur in many woody trees such as the hazelnut and the willow.
    A willow catkin ( Salix sp)
  • 43. Left: Male (staminate) catkin from the white mulberry ( Morus alba ), a fruitless variety commonly planted as a shade tree in southern California. Right: An individual male flower containing four stamens, each with an anther and a filament. At the base of each filament is a fleshy green sepal.
  • 44. Female flowers consist of single pistil tightly enveloped by four inconspicuous sepals. Each carpel or pistil (also referred as a gynoecium) consists of a forked stigma, a short style and a spherical ovary. Each ovary (carpel) becomes a drupelet and the ripened cluster of drupelets (syncarp) is called a multiple fruit. In the aggregate fruit of a blackberry, all the drupelets of the cluster (syncarp) come from a single flower
  • 45.
    • Solitary
    • --just one flower on the peduncle
  • 46.
    • Spadix
    • - is the characteristic inflorescence of the remarkable arum family (Araceae).
    • - It consists of a thickened, fleshy axis (spike) bearing clusters of sessile, apetalous, unisexual flowers.
    • - The small unisexual flowers are packed together along the lower region of an erect, phallus-like central spike, typically with male flowers above the female.
    • - The upper region of the spadix is usually devoid of flowers.
    • - Male (staminate) flowers consist of numerous stamens packed together,
  • 47.
    • - while female (pistillate) flowers consist of numerous individual pistils.
    • - Individual flowers are reduced to a single stamen or pistil (gynoecium).
    • - The spadix emerges from a vase-shaped or funnel-like modified leaf or spathe which is often brightly colored.
    • - The spadix of some arums emits a putrid odor that attracts carrion flies for pollination.
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. The bizarre Malaysian Amorphophallus paeoniifolius . An enlarged, inflated, flower-bearing spadix protrudes from the vase-shaped spathe. Clusters of yellow male flowers (stamens) can be seen above the whitish stigmas of female flowers (pistils).
  • 51.
    • raceme
    • - This inflorescence has an unbranched main axis and all the pedicels of the flowers are more or less the same length.
  • 52. Other raceme Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus ) Chinese hat ( Holmskioldia sp. )
  • 53.
    • umbel
    • - The peduncle of  this type of inflorescence bears all of the pedicels at its apex.
    Hydrangea ( Hydrangea macrophylla ) Lantana ( Lantana sp )
  • 54.
    • compound umbel
    • - The peduncle bears a number of primary pedicels at its apex. These do no bear flowers but a number of secondary pedicels at their apices which in turn bear the flowers. 
    Frangipani ( Plumeria rubra )
  • 55.  
  • 56.
    • spike
    • - This inflorescence type has a long, unbranched main axis which bears flowers which have no pedicels or very short pedicels.
    Silver oak ( Grevillea robusta )
  • 57. Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Gladiolus ( Gladiolus sp. ) Red hot poker ( Kniphofia sp. ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma )
  • 58.
    • head (capitulum)
    • - which do not have pedicels
    • - are grouped together on the top of a peduncle which may be flattened or rounded.
    • - Daisies (Asteraceae) are a good example
    • - outer flowers may have one very large petal
    • - In other families the whole inflorescence may be surrounded by bracts e.g. the Proteas.
    • - This gives the impression that the whole structure is a single flower but it may in fact be hundreds of flowers grouped together.
  • 59. Examples: King protea ( Protea cynaroides ) Daisy species
  • 60. Mimosa sp. Pincushions ( Leucospermum sp. )
  • 61.
    • A corymb
    • - The main axis of this inflorescence type is elongated and unbranched as in a raceme, but the pedicels of the flowers are of unequal length so that the entire structure appears flat-topped. Examples include hawthorn, the apple and dogwood.
    Crataegus calpodendron
  • 62.  
  • 63. hawthorn Hydrangea corymb (group of flowers displayed as a disc)
  • 64. Difference of corycomb, cyme and umbel
  • 65.
    • Spikelet
    • -like a spike, but with the flowers and inflorescence subtended by specialized bracts. Usually applied to the grass family (Poaceae)
  • 66.
    • Verticil or Whorl-
    • -the flowers are borne in a tight circle at each node
  • 67.
    • Panicle
    • --the main axis has branches which are in turn rebranched
  • 68. Inflorescence Types
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71.  
  • 72. The End