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Mitosis And Meiosis

Mitosis And Meiosis






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    Mitosis And Meiosis Mitosis And Meiosis Presentation Transcript

    • Mitosis and Meiosis By: Richard Shirk, Jr.
    • What Are Mitosis And Meiosis?
      • Both are types of reproduction used during the cell cycle
      • Each type of cell division are specialized for different types of cells
      • Both undergo the cell cycle in very similar, yet very different ways
    • Important Definitions
      • DNA : a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides and contains the genetic information of living cells
      • Chromosome : a single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA
      • Chromatid : one of the two identical strands of DNA and protein that forms a replicated chromosome
      • Gene : a unit of heredity; specifies the amino acid sequence of proteins and hence particular traits
      • Allele : one of several alternative forms of a particular gene
      • Locus : the physical location of a gene on a chromosome
    • Important Definitions (cont.)
      • Diploid : referring to a cell with pairs of homologous chromosomes
      • Haploid : referring to a cell that has only one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes
      • Homologous Pair : two homologues that are similar in appearance and genetic information that pair during meiosis
      • Heterozygous : carrying two different alleles of a given gene
      • Homozygous : carrying two copies of the same allele of a given gene
    • Mitosis
      • Mitosis is the division of chromosomes in a cell
      • Usually followed by cytokinesis or cell division
      • Daughter cells produced after mitosis have same number of chromosomes as original cell
      • Purpose of mitosis is replication of somatic cells and asexual reproduction
      • Somatic cells include all cells in the body except the egg or sperm
    • Meiosis
      • Meiosis is the division and reduction of the chromosomes of a cell
      • Daughter cells produced have half the chromosomes as the original cell
      • Purpose of meiosis is the production of gametes (sex cells)
    • Stages Of The Cell Cycle
      • Interphase
      • Synthesis
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
    • Interphase And Synthesis Stages Of Mitosis And Meosis
      • During Interphase the cell carries out normal activities such as metabolism and protein synthesis
      • During synthesis the DNA in each chromosome is replicated
    • Prophase And Metaphase Stages of Mitosis
      • The prophase stage
        • chromosomes condense and would be visible under a light microscope
        • the nuclear membrane degrades
      • In the metaphase stage the chromosomes line up along the equator
    • Anaphase And Telophase Stages of Mitosis And Cytokinesis
      • In the anaphase stage the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
      • In the telophase stage one set of each chromosome reaches each pole
      • Cytokinesis begins and the cell divides in two creating two diploid cells
    • Meosis I
      • Prophase I
        • chromosomes visible
        • hHomologous pairs of chromosomes come together to from tetrads
        • crossing over occurs when a chromatid of one chromosome in a pair exchanges a segment of itself with the chromatid of the other chromosome in the pair
    • Meosis I (cont.)
      • Metaphase I
        • homologous pairs line up along the equator of the cell
      • Anaphase I
        • Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of cell
      • Telophase I
        • Chromosomes complete their migration to poles of the cell and cytokinesis occurs
    • Meosis II
      • No new DNA replication takes place
      • Prophase II
        • Spindle fibers re-form and chromosome begin to move to middle of cell
    • Meosis II (cont.)
      • Metaphase II
        • chromosomes line up along equator
      • Anaphase II
        • sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to poles of cells
      • Telophase II
        • the chromatids complete migration
        • nuclei reform and cytokinesis occurs
      • Meosis produces four haploid cells
    • Crossing Over Of Meosis
      • Increases the number of allelic combinations
      • Increase in different possible physical expressions and characteristics
      • Allows species to try varies combinations and find the best combination that suits their environment
    • Works Cited
      • http://genetics.nbii.gov/Basic1.html
      • http://www.biologycorner.com/bio4/notes/meiosis.php
      • http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/PGclass/mitosis/pg3bd.htm