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Mitosis And Meiosis

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  • 1. Mitosis and Meiosis By: Richard Shirk, Jr.
  • 2. What Are Mitosis And Meiosis?
    • Both are types of reproduction used during the cell cycle
    • Each type of cell division are specialized for different types of cells
    • Both undergo the cell cycle in very similar, yet very different ways
  • 3. Important Definitions
    • DNA : a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides and contains the genetic information of living cells
    • Chromosome : a single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA
    • Chromatid : one of the two identical strands of DNA and protein that forms a replicated chromosome
    • Gene : a unit of heredity; specifies the amino acid sequence of proteins and hence particular traits
    • Allele : one of several alternative forms of a particular gene
    • Locus : the physical location of a gene on a chromosome
  • 4. Important Definitions (cont.)
    • Diploid : referring to a cell with pairs of homologous chromosomes
    • Haploid : referring to a cell that has only one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes
    • Homologous Pair : two homologues that are similar in appearance and genetic information that pair during meiosis
    • Heterozygous : carrying two different alleles of a given gene
    • Homozygous : carrying two copies of the same allele of a given gene
  • 5. Mitosis
    • Mitosis is the division of chromosomes in a cell
    • Usually followed by cytokinesis or cell division
    • Daughter cells produced after mitosis have same number of chromosomes as original cell
    • Purpose of mitosis is replication of somatic cells and asexual reproduction
    • Somatic cells include all cells in the body except the egg or sperm
  • 6. Meiosis
    • Meiosis is the division and reduction of the chromosomes of a cell
    • Daughter cells produced have half the chromosomes as the original cell
    • Purpose of meiosis is the production of gametes (sex cells)
  • 7. Stages Of The Cell Cycle
    • Interphase
    • Synthesis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  • 8. Interphase And Synthesis Stages Of Mitosis And Meosis
    • During Interphase the cell carries out normal activities such as metabolism and protein synthesis
    • During synthesis the DNA in each chromosome is replicated
  • 9. Prophase And Metaphase Stages of Mitosis
    • The prophase stage
      • chromosomes condense and would be visible under a light microscope
      • the nuclear membrane degrades
    • In the metaphase stage the chromosomes line up along the equator
  • 10. Anaphase And Telophase Stages of Mitosis And Cytokinesis
    • In the anaphase stage the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
    • In the telophase stage one set of each chromosome reaches each pole
    • Cytokinesis begins and the cell divides in two creating two diploid cells
  • 11. Meosis I
    • Prophase I
      • chromosomes visible
      • hHomologous pairs of chromosomes come together to from tetrads
      • crossing over occurs when a chromatid of one chromosome in a pair exchanges a segment of itself with the chromatid of the other chromosome in the pair
  • 12. Meosis I (cont.)
    • Metaphase I
      • homologous pairs line up along the equator of the cell
    • Anaphase I
      • Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of cell
    • Telophase I
      • Chromosomes complete their migration to poles of the cell and cytokinesis occurs
  • 13. Meosis II
    • No new DNA replication takes place
    • Prophase II
      • Spindle fibers re-form and chromosome begin to move to middle of cell
  • 14. Meosis II (cont.)
    • Metaphase II
      • chromosomes line up along equator
    • Anaphase II
      • sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to poles of cells
    • Telophase II
      • the chromatids complete migration
      • nuclei reform and cytokinesis occurs
    • Meosis produces four haploid cells
  • 15. Crossing Over Of Meosis
    • Increases the number of allelic combinations
    • Increase in different possible physical expressions and characteristics
    • Allows species to try varies combinations and find the best combination that suits their environment
  • 16. Works Cited
    • http://genetics.nbii.gov/Basic1.html
    • http://www.biologycorner.com/bio4/notes/meiosis.php
    • http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/PGclass/mitosis/pg3bd.htm

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