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  1. 1. Flowers Presented by: Geonyzl L. Alviola
  2. 2. Intro on flowers <ul><li>A diagnostic feature of the angiosperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified reproductive shoot </li></ul><ul><li>The shoot is determinate </li></ul>
  3. 3. Flower parts
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pedicel – the flower stalk </li></ul><ul><li>(if absent the flower attachment is sessile)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Bract – reduced leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Epicalyx - series of bracts </li></ul>calyx epicalyx
  5. 6. <ul><li>Receptacle – region of the flower which the floral parts are attached </li></ul><ul><li>Perianth (perigonium)‏ </li></ul>receptacle
  6. 7. <ul><li>Tepals – if perianth is undifferentiated/ the individual leaf parts </li></ul><ul><li>- The term tepal is usually used when all segments of the perianth are of similar shape and color, </li></ul>
  7. 8. Perianth is differentiated into two groups <ul><li>A. Calyx – the outermost series of the whorl and consist of individual units of modified leaves called SEPALS </li></ul><ul><li>B. Corolla – the inner most series that consist a modified leaves called PETALS </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Hypanthium – Floral tube </li></ul><ul><li> - a cup like or tubular structure </li></ul><ul><li> - around or top of the ovary </li></ul><ul><li> - bearing along the margin the sepals, petals and stamen </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Nectary – a specialized structure that secretes nectar </li></ul><ul><li>- found on parianth parts , </li></ul><ul><li>- or within the receptacle </li></ul><ul><li> - or within the androecium or </li></ul><ul><li>gynoecium </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Androecium refers to all of the male organs </li></ul><ul><li>- collectively called STAMENS </li></ul><ul><li>consist of the following parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a. filament (stalk-like) </li></ul><ul><li>b. anther (pollen bearing) </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Gynoecium refers to all female organs of a flower. </li></ul><ul><li>- collective called CARPEL(pistil) </li></ul><ul><li>consist of the following parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a. ovary </li></ul><ul><li>b. style </li></ul><ul><li>c. stigma </li></ul>
  12. 18. gynoecium
  13. 19. <ul><li>Gynostegium </li></ul><ul><li>- the male and female organs are fused as one structure </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Androgynophore </li></ul><ul><li>- A stalk that bears the androecium and gynoecium </li></ul>
  15. 21. Flower Attachment
  16. 22. Pedicellate <ul><li>Flowers with pedicel </li></ul>
  17. 24. Flower cycly
  18. 25. Flower Cycly <ul><li>Refers to the number of cycles (series of whorls) or floral parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic terms : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Complete – having all four major series </li></ul><ul><li>(sepals, petals, stamens & carpels) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Incomplete – for a flowering lacking one or more of the four major whorls or parts. </li></ul>
  19. 26. Complete Flower
  20. 27. Incomplete flower Raspberry Tulip
  21. 28. Flower Sex and Plant Sex
  22. 29. Floral Sex or Flower sex <ul><li>Refers to the absence or presence of male and female parts with the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>two kinds : </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect / bisexual – both stamen and carpel are present in one flower </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect/ unisexual – only one is present </li></ul>
  23. 30. Imperfect <ul><li>Have two kinds : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pistillate (female) – carpel present but stamen absent </li></ul>
  24. 31. Imperfect Flower <ul><li>2. Staminate – have only the stamen </li></ul>
  25. 32. Plant Sex <ul><li>Refers to the presence and distribution of perfect and imperfect flower on individual of a species. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Hermaphroditic – only a perfect flower </li></ul><ul><li>B. Monoecious – a plant with only unisexual flowers both male and female on the same individual plant </li></ul><ul><li>C. Dieocious – have unisexual flower with staminate and pistillate on separate individuals </li></ul>
  26. 33. Monoecious Plant
  27. 34. Dioecious
  28. 35. Other variations <ul><li>Polygamous plant – having both bisexual and unisexual flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Andromonoecious plant - having both staminate and perfect flowers on the same individual </li></ul><ul><li>Gynomonoecious plant – both pistillate and perfect flowers on the same individual </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Trimonoecious – refers to a plant with pistillate, staminate and perfect flowers on the same individual </li></ul><ul><li>Gynodiecious – refers to a plant with female flowers on some individuals and perfect flowers on the other </li></ul>
  30. 37. <ul><li>Androdioecious – refers to a plant with male flowers on some and perfect flowers on othe individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Trioecious – refers to a plant with pistillate, staminate and perfect flowers on different individuals </li></ul>
  31. 38. Flower Symmetry