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Giardia lamblia colonises the small intestine where the trophozoites adhere to the mucosal surface by means of their sucking disc. Cysts are produced as the parasites descend the intestinal tract although trophozoites can be passed in the faeces in severe infections . G. lamblia is transmitted through ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food. Cysts can survive outside the body for several weeks under favourable conditions. The main symptoms are abdominal pain,
flatulence, and episodic diarrhoea with steatorrhea and periodical soreness in severe cases. No blood or mucus is normally seen. However 50% of G. lamblia infections are symptomless, although severe infections may develop in immunocompromised hosts. What determines susceptibility is poorly understood. After swallowing cysts for the first time, symptoms commonly develop 2-6 weeks later.
Widely distributed in tropical areas and some temperate regions.
A species that lives as a commensal in the mouth of humans and other primates , especially in the tartar around the teeth or in the defects of carious teeth; there is no evidence of direct pathogenesis , but it is frequently associated with pyogenic organisms in pus pockets or at the base of teeth.
Infection often leads to vaginitis and accute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa.
Trichomoniasis is associated with preterm delivery, low birthweight and increased infant mortality. Infection also pre-disposes individuals to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer (Cohen, 2000; Upcroft and Upcroft, 2001).
T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes and pelvis, and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis and oral lesions.
Cosmopolitan intestinal flagellates of man that can be identtified in diarrheric stool
one pear-shaped morphology
has 6 flagella , all previous ones except one, that are associate to the cellular surface forming a undulating membrane. Parallel to this membrane is arranged, inside the cell, a beam of microtúbules denominated coast.
It has an only nucleus with endosome that is arranged in the previous zone, near the point of insertion of flagella.
The trofozoito is the vegetative form that is fed, reproduces and infects.