Nat Sci 1 Biological Science
Topic Outline <ul><li>Grading system </li></ul><ul><li>House Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Topic lessons </li></ul><ul><li>-  In...
Grading System <ul><li>Class standing 2/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Examination 1/3(% /3)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for Clas...
House Rules <ul><li>During exam no cheating. When caught cheating automatic zero(40 grade). </li></ul><ul><li>Submit assig...
House Rules <ul><li>When  you copy an assignment make sure  you  understand the content because  when the  teacher asked, ...
What is Biology? <ul><li>BIOLOGY  – is the study of living organism which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>- structural functio...
Fields of Biology <ul><li>2 Major Divisions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Botany – the scientific study of plants  </li></ul><ul><l...
Branches of Zoology <ul><li>1.   Anatomy  -the study of  body parts and their location </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Ecology - stu...
Branches of  Zoology <ul><li>4.  Evolution  – the study of change undergone by species through the ages. </li></ul><ul><li...
Branches of Zoology <ul><li>9.  Gross Anatomy  – it is a study of  microscopic structure of tissues and organs. (mix anato...
Other  specialized sciences <ul><li>A.  Taxonomy  – naming, describing, classifying living organism.  </li></ul><ul><li>So...
Assignment #1 Identify the  specialized discipline. Write your  answer on a ½ sheet of paper: 1. Helminthology- study of  ...
cont....... <ul><li>7. Mycology - study of  fungi </li></ul><ul><li>8. Ornithology - study of  birds </li></ul><ul><li>9. ...
Other  Sciences linked to  Biology <ul><li>1. Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>2. chemistry  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Geology </li>...
What is  Science? <ul><li>Science is an  objective, logical and  repeatable attempt to understand the  principles and forc...
Process of  Science <ul><li>Scientific Method  – way of  gaining information about  the  world by forming possible solutio...
Ideal Steps to scientific process. <ul><li>1. observation – defining the problem  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Question Formulatio...
cont.... <ul><li>5. Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>experiment is a re-creation of an event or occurrence in a way that ...
<ul><li>7.  Law  Fomation/ Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>- the observed regularities in the  study </li></ul><ul><li>t...
Assignment # 2 <ul><li>What are  the  limitations of Science? </li></ul>
Limitations of  Science <ul><li>The type of  questions can be answered </li></ul><ul><li>2.  The time  it may to find and ...
How do we  start to study in biology ? <ul><li>To start with  biology we deal in by component parts (units) because life  ...
1. atoms <ul><li>The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist alone or  in combination. </li></ul>
2. Molecules <ul><li>A small unit of matter </li></ul>
3. Cell <ul><li>The fundmental unit of living things. </li></ul>
3. Tissue <ul><li>A group of cells with similar  function. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex.  Areolar tissue (the  shown  fig.)‏ <...
6. Organ <ul><li>A group of  tissues with overall  function </li></ul><ul><li>for example: heart </li></ul>
7. Organ System <ul><li>A group of cell, tissues and  organs that  perform a specific  major  function </li></ul>
8.  Individual/ Complex Organism <ul><li>The  total interaction of the  organ systems </li></ul>
9. Population <ul><li>Group of similar individual who tend to mate with each other in a limited georgraphic area </li></ul>
10. Species <ul><li>Group of similar individuals who tend to mate and  produce viable, fertile  offsprings. </li></ul>Pith...
11. Community <ul><li>the relationships  of smaller  groups of  organisms with each other  and their  environment. </li></ul>
12. Ecosystem <ul><li>The relationship of smaller  groups of organisms with  each other and their  environment </li></ul>
13. Biosphere
Emergent Properties of Life <ul><li>1. Organization </li></ul><ul><li>2. Energy acquisition and Release </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Living Kingdoms <ul><li>Kingdoms are divisions of living  nature categorizing living  thins to express their line or p...
In the  beginning....... <ul><li>There are  two (2) kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>established by C____ L ____ (1778)‏ </li></...
In 1674, Antonie Van    Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>The  “father of microscopy” </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the simple microscope a...
1938.....Herbert Copeland <ul><li>Proposed the  fourth kingdom, after the invention of the  electron microscope. </li></ul...
1970 onwards... <ul><li>- increasing emphasis on molecular level comparisons of genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Woese divide...
6 kingdoms
<ul><li>The six-kingdom system is still recognizably an expansion of the original two-kingdom system: Animalia remains; th...
<ul><li>In 2004, a review article by  Simpson and Roger  noted that the Protista were &quot;a grab-bag for all eukaryotes ...
 
<ul><li>As of April 2010, there appears to be a consensus that the six supergroup model does not reflect the true phylogen...
Summary
First  Quiz 20 minutes
Chemistry Of Life
<ul><li>Most  of the activities of the cell involves  changes.  </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the smallest  structural uni...
Carbohydrates (energy source)‏ <ul><li>Three main types </li></ul><ul><li>a. Monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>glucose – th...
 
Proteins  <ul><li>Building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates chemical activities </li></ul>
Lipids <ul><li>Are heterogeneous  group that have a greasy characteristics and  insoluble to  water. </li></ul><ul><li>a. ...
Phospholipids
Steroids <ul><li>Responsible for  growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul><ul><li>estrogen -  female  ...
Vitamins <ul><li>Another  organic component that also responsible for development and  growth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vitami...
 
<ul><li>Vit D is required  for normal growth and  absorption of  calcium and  Phosphorus by the intestine. </li></ul><ul><...
 
<ul><li>Vitamin B complex -  necessary for  metabolism </li></ul>
Vitamin C- ascorbic  acid
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic Acids – complex high-molecular weight macromolecules composed of nucleotide </li></ul><ul><l...
 
Inorganic Components <ul><li>These include minerals and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur – component of  proteins. </li></u...
<ul><li>6. Iron – component of  hemoglobin  pigment and  some  enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>7. Iodine – Essential for the syn...
Cell  Structure and Function
Three division of the cell <ul><li>1. cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>2. cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nucleus </li></ul>...
Assignment #3 <ul><li>Make a table to differentiate the prokaryotic cell from the eukaryotic cell </li></ul>
 
 
 
Skeletal System <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To support and  give shape to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>  2. To p...
<ul><li>Types of  Skeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>1. hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>2. endoskeleton </li></ul><u...
Components <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>- it is a  translucent  elastic connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>- made...
 
 
Types of Bone Tissue <ul><li>Compact Bone – closely pact osteons or haversian systems. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Spongy Bone – ...
 
Bone  Formation <ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification  – involves replacement of sheet-like tissue membranes with  bony tis...
 
Skeletal organization
a skeleton has  206 bones  (number may vary per person).The skleton is divided into the  axial  and  appendicular  skeleto...
Axial skeleton
<ul><li>a1-1:  Cranium: 8 bones </li></ul><ul><li>                         1 Frontal bone </li></ul><ul><li>              ...
<ul><li>   a1-2: Face: 14 bones  </li></ul><ul><li>       2 maxillary bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Palatine bones </li...
 
a3- Vertebral column
<ul><li>a3-1 Cervical vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>         a3-2 Thoracic  </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
a5- Sternum
b- Appendicular skeleton  <ul><li>b1- Upper limb </li></ul><ul><li>         b1-1: Pectoral girdle: </li></ul><ul><li>     ...
 
<ul><li>b2- Lower limb </li></ul><ul><li>         b2-1 Pelvic girdle: Coxal bones </li></ul><ul><li>         b2-2 Upper le...
<ul><li>5-5. Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Connect bone to bone.  Can be non movable, slightly movable or fully movable. </li><...
 
 
5-6. Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system <ul><li>-  Sprains :  Stretched or torn ligaments à pain, swelling, bru...
<ul><li>- Osteoarthritis  is a wear and tear due to age of the cartilage of the articulation. Common in older people. Pain...
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Biology lecture

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three chapters or more: cell, science, branches of biology, kingdoms of life, bio molecules and skeletal system

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Biology lecture

  1. 1. Nat Sci 1 Biological Science
  2. 2. Topic Outline <ul><li>Grading system </li></ul><ul><li>House Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Topic lessons </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>- The Living Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>- The Chemistry of Life </li></ul><ul><li>- Cell Structure and Function </li></ul><ul><li>- Skeletal System </li></ul>
  3. 3. Grading System <ul><li>Class standing 2/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Examination 1/3(% /3)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for Class Standing </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Seat work/ OR 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance 10% </li></ul><ul><li>( 100% x 2)/3=CS Grade </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of the exam +CS = your Grade </li></ul>
  4. 4. House Rules <ul><li>During exam no cheating. When caught cheating automatic zero(40 grade). </li></ul><ul><li>Submit assignments on time, late submission will not be accepted. In case when you are absent let your classmate submit your assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>In case when you are absent, inform your teacher or submit a letter when you back to class. </li></ul><ul><li>Comply all the requirements to avoid to get a low grade or failed grade. </li></ul>
  5. 5. House Rules <ul><li>When you copy an assignment make sure you understand the content because when the teacher asked, you are able to answer the question. </li></ul><ul><li>The grade you receive would depend on the scores that you give to your teacher. Your teacher will just compute and gave you the total. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the exam make sure you have reviewed all the topics discussed. Sometimes the contents exam were already taken during your quizzes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Biology? <ul><li>BIOLOGY – is the study of living organism which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>- structural function </li></ul><ul><li>- origin </li></ul><ul><li>- evolution classification, interrelationships </li></ul><ul><li>- ecology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fields of Biology <ul><li>2 Major Divisions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Botany – the scientific study of plants </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zoology – deals with the study of all aspects of animal life. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Branches of Zoology <ul><li>1. Anatomy -the study of body parts and their location </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ecology - study of interrelationships of organisms in the habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Embryology -it is the study of the formation and development of an individual from gametes to an organism </li></ul>
  9. 9. Branches of Zoology <ul><li>4. Evolution – the study of change undergone by species through the ages. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Genetics – the study of genes, heredity and variation. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Morphology – study on form and structure of organism </li></ul><ul><li>7. Cytology – study of cells </li></ul><ul><li>8. Histology – study of tissues. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Branches of Zoology <ul><li>9. Gross Anatomy – it is a study of microscopic structure of tissues and organs. (mix anatomy and histology)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>10. Paleozoology – the study of animal fossils </li></ul><ul><li>11. Physiology – the study of how body parts function and how they work. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other specialized sciences <ul><li>A. Taxonomy – naming, describing, classifying living organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Some variations: </li></ul><ul><li>a.1. Apiculture – study of bees </li></ul><ul><li>a.2. Anthropology – study of man </li></ul><ul><li>a.3. Carcinology – study of crabs </li></ul><ul><li>a.4. Conchology – study of shells </li></ul>
  12. 12. Assignment #1 Identify the specialized discipline. Write your answer on a ½ sheet of paper: 1. Helminthology- study of worms 2. Entomology - study of insects 3. Herpetology - study of reptiles and amphibians 4. Ichthyology - study of fishes 5. Lchenology - study of lichens 6. Malacology - study of soft-bodied animals
  13. 13. cont....... <ul><li>7. Mycology - study of fungi </li></ul><ul><li>8. Ornithology - study of birds </li></ul><ul><li>9. Parasitology - study of parasites </li></ul><ul><li>10. Phycology - study of algae </li></ul><ul><li>11. Protozoology - study of one-celled organism </li></ul><ul><li>12. Virology - study of virus </li></ul><ul><li>13. Microbiology - study of microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>14. Mammalogy - study of mammals </li></ul><ul><li>15. Helmithology - study of worms </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Sciences linked to Biology <ul><li>1. Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>2. chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>3. Geology </li></ul><ul><li>4. mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>5. Physics </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is Science? <ul><li>Science is an objective, logical and repeatable attempt to understand the principles and forces operating the natural universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from Latin verb “scientia” which means “to know” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Process of Science <ul><li>Scientific Method – way of gaining information about the world by forming possible solutions to questions followed by rigorous testing to determine if the proposed solutions are valid. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ideal Steps to scientific process. <ul><li>1. observation – defining the problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Question Formulation – asking about your observation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exploration of Alternative Resources- </li></ul><ul><li>gathering more information about the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hypothesis Formation - one or more falsifiable explanation for the observation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. cont.... <ul><li>5. Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>experiment is a re-creation of an event or occurrence in a way that enables a scientist to support or disprove a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Theory formation </li></ul><ul><li>- is a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested with little modifications </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>7. Law Fomation/ Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>- the observed regularities in the study </li></ul><ul><li>theory: </li></ul><ul><li>= systematic sets of concepts that relate data, explain the concept of the study and serve to guide the future research </li></ul>
  20. 20. Assignment # 2 <ul><li>What are the limitations of Science? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Limitations of Science <ul><li>The type of questions can be answered </li></ul><ul><li>2. The time it may to find and answer </li></ul><ul><li>3. The lack of absolute certainty in the answer . </li></ul><ul><li>4. The inability to make moral or value judgements . </li></ul>
  22. 22. How do we start to study in biology ? <ul><li>To start with biology we deal in by component parts (units) because life was placed in hierarchy of organization with the smallest and simplest units at the bottom and the largest and most complex at the top. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. atoms <ul><li>The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist alone or in combination. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Molecules <ul><li>A small unit of matter </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3. Cell <ul><li>The fundmental unit of living things. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3. Tissue <ul><li>A group of cells with similar function. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex. Areolar tissue (the shown fig.)‏ </li></ul>
  27. 27. 6. Organ <ul><li>A group of tissues with overall function </li></ul><ul><li>for example: heart </li></ul>
  28. 28. 7. Organ System <ul><li>A group of cell, tissues and organs that perform a specific major function </li></ul>
  29. 29. 8. Individual/ Complex Organism <ul><li>The total interaction of the organ systems </li></ul>
  30. 30. 9. Population <ul><li>Group of similar individual who tend to mate with each other in a limited georgraphic area </li></ul>
  31. 31. 10. Species <ul><li>Group of similar individuals who tend to mate and produce viable, fertile offsprings. </li></ul>Pithecophaga jefferyi
  32. 32. 11. Community <ul><li>the relationships of smaller groups of organisms with each other and their environment. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 12. Ecosystem <ul><li>The relationship of smaller groups of organisms with each other and their environment </li></ul>
  34. 34. 13. Biosphere
  35. 35. Emergent Properties of Life <ul><li>1. Organization </li></ul><ul><li>2. Energy acquisition and Release </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reproduction and Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Growth and Development </li></ul><ul><li>5. Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>6. Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>7. Detection and Response to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>8. Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distinguishing properties that are unique to living things. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Living Kingdoms <ul><li>Kingdoms are divisions of living nature categorizing living thins to express their line or phylogeny </li></ul><ul><li>When these kingdoms of life established? </li></ul>
  37. 37. In the beginning....... <ul><li>There are two (2) kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>established by C____ L ____ (1778)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>- he pioneered the biological nomenclature. </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul>Regnum Animale (Animal Kingdom)‏ Regnum Vegetabile (Plant kingdom)‏
  38. 38. In 1674, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>The “father of microscopy” </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the simple microscope and observed the single celled organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>......1866... Richard Owen, John Hogg and </li></ul><ul><li>Ernst Haeckel proposed the 3 rd kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul>Kingom protista Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae
  39. 39. 1938.....Herbert Copeland <ul><li>Proposed the fourth kingdom, after the invention of the electron microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul>Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Monera (bacteria, Blue-green algae Eukaryotic Prokaryotes Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Monera (bacteria, Blue-green algae)‏ 1960 – as proposed by Edouard Chatton
  40. 40. 1970 onwards... <ul><li>- increasing emphasis on molecular level comparisons of genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Woese divided the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera) into two groups, called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria , stressing that there was as much genetic difference between these two groups as between either of them and all eukaryotes. </li></ul>
  41. 41. 6 kingdoms
  42. 42. <ul><li>The six-kingdom system is still recognizably an expansion of the original two-kingdom system: Animalia remains; the original category of plants has been split into Plantae and Fungi; and single-celled organisms have been introduced and split into Bacteria, Archaea and Protista. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>In 2004, a review article by Simpson and Roger noted that the Protista were &quot;a grab-bag for all eukaryotes that are not animals, plants or fungi&quot;. They argued that only monophyletic groups – an ancestor and all of its descendents – should be accepted as formal ranks in a classification. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>As of April 2010, there appears to be a consensus that the six supergroup model does not reflect the true phylogeny of the eukaryotes, although there is no agreement as to the model which should replace it </li></ul>
  45. 46. Summary
  46. 47. First Quiz 20 minutes
  47. 48. Chemistry Of Life
  48. 49. <ul><li>Most of the activities of the cell involves changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the smallest structural unit of an organism that has all the attributes of life. </li></ul><ul><li>cell organelles which are composed of big molecules from different compounds </li></ul><ul><li>these organic compounds are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. carbohydrates 4. vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>2. proteins 5. Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nucleic Acid </li></ul>
  49. 50. Carbohydrates (energy source)‏ <ul><li>Three main types </li></ul><ul><li>a. Monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>glucose – the blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>b. Disaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>sucrose – from sugar cane </li></ul><ul><li>lactose – from milk </li></ul><ul><li>maltose - from malt </li></ul><ul><li>c. Polysaccharide – starch and cellulose (plant)‏ </li></ul>
  50. 52. Proteins <ul><li>Building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates chemical activities </li></ul>
  51. 53. Lipids <ul><li>Are heterogeneous group that have a greasy characteristics and insoluble to water. </li></ul><ul><li>a. fats </li></ul><ul><li>b. phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>c. Steroids </li></ul>
  52. 54. Phospholipids
  53. 55. Steroids <ul><li>Responsible for growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul><ul><li>estrogen - female hormone </li></ul><ul><li>testosterone - male hormone </li></ul><ul><li>GH - responsible for growth </li></ul>
  54. 56. Vitamins <ul><li>Another organic component that also responsible for development and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vitamin A – formed in the liver from carotenoid pigments found in green leafy vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vitamin D – has two forms </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D-2 and Vit D- 3 </li></ul><ul><li>= both to prevent the disease rickets </li></ul><ul><li>= source is the sun and cod liver oil </li></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Vit D is required for normal growth and absorption of calcium and Phosphorus by the intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Vit E known as tocopherol needed for normal growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Vit K – for anti-hemorrhagic and necessary in prothrombin synthesis </li></ul>
  56. 60. <ul><li>Vitamin B complex - necessary for metabolism </li></ul>
  57. 61. Vitamin C- ascorbic acid
  58. 62. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic Acids – complex high-molecular weight macromolecules composed of nucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>- it is a constituents of genes and viuses. </li></ul><ul><li>A. DNA </li></ul><ul><li>B. RNA </li></ul>
  59. 64. Inorganic Components <ul><li>These include minerals and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur – component of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus – for maintenance of bone and teeth, nerves and muscle activity. Controls blood clotting and cell permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium – cell conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine – important in fluid balance </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium – component and activator of many coenzymes </li></ul>
  60. 65. <ul><li>6. Iron – component of hemoglobin pigment and some enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>7. Iodine – Essential for the synthesis of thyroxin in the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Calcium – present in teeth and cell wall needed in muscular contraction and blood clotting. </li></ul>
  61. 66. Cell Structure and Function
  62. 67. Three division of the cell <ul><li>1. cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>2. cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nucleus </li></ul>Two cell domain: 1. Eukaryotic cell 2. Prokaryotic cell
  63. 68. Assignment #3 <ul><li>Make a table to differentiate the prokaryotic cell from the eukaryotic cell </li></ul>
  64. 72. Skeletal System <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To support and give shape to the body. </li></ul><ul><li> 2. To protect the vital organs and tissues of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To aid in movement by giving muscles something firm to work against. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Site of hematopoisis </li></ul><ul><li>5. Storage of minerals and fats. </li></ul>
  65. 73. <ul><li>Types of Skeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>1. hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>2. endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>3. exoskeleton </li></ul>
  66. 74. Components <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>- it is a translucent elastic connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>- made up of cells called chondrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Bone </li></ul><ul><li>- are hard largely calcareous tissues most of the skeleton of a vertebral animal. </li></ul><ul><li>- are mineralized connective tissues. </li></ul>
  67. 77. Types of Bone Tissue <ul><li>Compact Bone – closely pact osteons or haversian systems. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Spongy Bone – it consist of plates (trabeculae) that looks like a honeycomb network of rigid bars. </li></ul>
  68. 79. Bone Formation <ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification – involves replacement of sheet-like tissue membranes with bony tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Endochondral Ossification – It involves the conversion of cartilage into bone </li></ul>ASSIGNMENT #4 DRAW THE TWO PROCESSES OF BONE FORMATION IN A SHORT BOND PAPER
  69. 81. Skeletal organization
  70. 82. a skeleton has 206 bones (number may vary per person).The skleton is divided into the axial and appendicular skeletons.
  71. 83. Axial skeleton
  72. 84. <ul><li>a1-1: Cranium: 8 bones </li></ul><ul><li>                        1 Frontal bone </li></ul><ul><li>                        2 Parietal bones </li></ul><ul><li>                        1 Occipital bone </li></ul><ul><li>                        2 Temporal bones </li></ul><ul><li>                        1 sphenoid </li></ul><ul><li>                        1 Ethmoid </li></ul>
  73. 85. <ul><li>  a1-2: Face: 14 bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 maxillary bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Palatine bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Zygomatic bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Lacrimal bones </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Nasal bones </li></ul><ul><li>       1 Vomer </li></ul><ul><li>       2 Inferior nasal conchae </li></ul><ul><li>       1 Mandible </li></ul><ul><li>a2- Hyoid bone: thin bone located in the upper throat, supporting the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  74. 87. a3- Vertebral column
  75. 88. <ul><li>a3-1 Cervical vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>        a3-2 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>        a3-3 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>        a3-4 Sacral </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>        a3-5 Coccygeal </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae </li></ul>
  76. 89. a5- Sternum
  77. 90. b- Appendicular skeleton <ul><li>b1- Upper limb </li></ul><ul><li>        b1-1: Pectoral girdle: </li></ul><ul><li>                        Clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>                        Scapula </li></ul><ul><li>        b1-2 Upper arm: Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>        b1-3 Lower arm: Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>                                    Radius </li></ul><ul><li>        b1-4 Wrist: 8 Carpal bones </li></ul><ul><li>        b1-5 Hand: 5 Metacarpal bones </li></ul><ul><li>                           Phalanges </li></ul>
  78. 92. <ul><li>b2- Lower limb </li></ul><ul><li>        b2-1 Pelvic girdle: Coxal bones </li></ul><ul><li>        b2-2 Upper leg: Femur </li></ul><ul><li>        b2-3 Lower leg: Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>                                    Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>        b2-4 Ankle: 7 tarsal bones </li></ul><ul><li>        b2-5 Foot: 5 Metatarsal bones and phalanges </li></ul>
  79. 93. <ul><li>5-5. Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Connect bone to bone.  Can be non movable, slightly movable or fully movable. </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial joints. </li></ul><ul><li>- Fibrous joints: Bones are connected with collagen fibers. Ex: cranium bones (non movable) </li></ul><ul><li>- Cartilagenous joints: cartilage between the bones. Ex: ribs to sternum (non movable) </li></ul><ul><li>- Synovial joints: full mobility possible </li></ul>
  80. 96. 5-6. Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system <ul><li>- Sprains :  Stretched or torn ligaments à pain, swelling, bruising.  A slight stretch will heal slowly because this tissue does not have blood vessels and a torn ligament will need surgery for repair. (a strain is a pulled muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>- Bursitis and tendonitis : inflammation of the bursa and tendons due to injury or repeated use (tennis elbow) </li></ul><ul><li>- Arthritis : joint inflammation.  </li></ul>
  81. 97. <ul><li>- Osteoarthritis is a wear and tear due to age of the cartilage of the articulation. Common in older people. Painful because there is friction and inflammation between the surface of the 2 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>- rheumatoid arthritis : the person's immune system attack the cartilage of the joints which become deformed and non functional. </li></ul>
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