Tectonics: Tsunami risk management

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Case studies and examples of how to manage Tsunami's using Stromboli as an example, and an overview of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System.

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Tectonics: Tsunami risk management

  1. 1. Tsunami Risk Management
  2. 2. Tsunami Generation <ul><li>Tsunamigenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Most generated at subduction/convergent boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Most active is the Japan – Taiwan boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Not all earthquakes generate tsunami, mostly over 6.5 richter </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be from volcanic collapse or landslides </li></ul>
  3. 3. Impacts <ul><li>Two case studies boxing day tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>Stromboli – 2002 and others </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2004 Tsunami
  5. 10. Banda Aceh
  6. 15. Sri Lanka
  7. 16. Kalutara Beach
  8. 17. Drawback
  9. 18. Inundation by the wave
  10. 20. Detection <ul><li>Un-noticeable in open water – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Wave length 150 to 250km </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback before landfall </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Warning system </li></ul>
  11. 21. Famous Tsunamis <ul><li>December 26, 2004: A massive earthquake off the coast of Sumatra generates tsunami waves that wreck coastlines in 10 countries, killing more than 280,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>August 16, 1976: A tsunami hits the Moro Gulf region of the Philippines, killing 5,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>March 28, 1964: The Good Friday earthquake in Alaska creates a tsunami that envelopes the Alaskan coastline. The same tsunami also hits Oregon and California. A total of 132 people die. </li></ul><ul><li>June 15, 1896: The 70-foot-high Sanriku tsunami strikes Japan, killing 26,000 people. </li></ul>
  12. 22. Tsunami Pictures http://fohn.net/biggest-tsunami/ The biggest tsunami’s of all time – 5 short case studies – try not to use the old ones!
  13. 23. Stromboli
  14. 24. Stromboli <ul><li>2002 tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>10m high </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamigenic source of a submarine and a sub-aerial landslide, created 2 waves </li></ul><ul><li>Only affected Stromboli, no other regions suffered severe consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred 8 times since 1920 </li></ul>
  15. 25. Stromboli Tectonics
  16. 26. morphology
  17. 27. Bathymetry <ul><li>Steep sloping NE flank </li></ul><ul><li>Scar extends to 1700m bsl </li></ul><ul><li>Slope is periodically overloaded and collapses (40 degrees, loose pc and lava) </li></ul>
  18. 28. Background to 2002
  19. 31. Stromboli 2002
  20. 32. Hazard Management
  21. 33. Management Techniques <ul><li>Standards – education, planning, hazard maps, monitoring and prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Japan – Tsunami Walls (Tsu) </li></ul><ul><li>http://water.wikia.com/wiki/Tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>Slope stabilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation – setting of smaller landlsides to minimise risk of big ones! </li></ul>
  22. 34. Management of Risk <ul><li>How do you manage tsunami risk? </li></ul><ul><li>10 Minutes – discuss in groups approaches to management using text book and modules and your own research </li></ul>

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