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Ergonomics

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  • 1. ERGONOMICS (ASPECTS IN WORKSTATION DESIGN AND ANALYSIS) Chandrakanth.C S1 M.Tech Roll No:01 mail me @ geothomasseril@gmail.com 1
  • 2. Contents  Definition  Objectives  Fields interact with ergonomics  Importance  Ergonomic approaches  Advantages & Disadvantages  Applications  Conclusion 2
  • 3. ERGONOMICS DERIVED FROM GREEK WORDS ERGO + NOMOS = ERGONOMICS “work” + “laws” = “ laws of work ”
  • 4. ERGONOMICS - DEFINITION  SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF HUMAN WORK  "DESIGNING THE JOB TO FIT THE WORKER , NOT FORCING THE WORKER TO FIT THE JOB“  SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH DESIGNING AND ARRANGING THINGS SO THAT PEOPLE CAN USE THEM EASILY AND SAFELY 4
  • 5. ERGONOMICS - OBJECTIVES  To improve the relationship b/w people , equipment , workplace, and the environment.  Increase work efficiency and productivity.  Promote safety and comfort at work station.  To reduce physical work loads.  To minimize the risk of injury , illness , accidents and errors without compromising productivity. 5
  • 6. FIELDS THAT INTERACT WITH ERGONOMICS  Anthropometry  Psychology  Operations Research  Surgery  Physics  Orthopedics  Physiology  Statistics  Engineering  Biomechanics  Industrial Hygiene  Industrial Medicine 6
  • 7. JOB RISK FACTORS  Working in awkward postures / positions  Prolonged sitting and standing  Bending, reaching, stretching  Driving for extended periods of time  Heavy lifting  Illumination  Awkward lifting  Lifting in combination with twisting  Pushing, pulling, carrying  Accidents, slips, trips, falls  Vibration & Noise  Repetition  Contact Stress  Thermal Condition 7
  • 8. ERGONOMICS - IMPORTANCE  Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) are fastest-growing injury category 1997 study of 420 medical secretaries ◦ 63 % reported neck/shoulder pain ◦ 51% low back pain ◦ 30 % hand/wrist pain 8
  • 9. Musculo Skeletal Disorders(MSD)  MSD’s are injuries caused by sustained exposure to stresses or repetitive motion.  They may affect muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, circulation, or nerves.  Some well-known MSD’s are: 1. Carpel tunnel syndrome 2. Tennis elbow 9
  • 10. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME One of the best known MSDs  The median nerve does not work properly due to pressure on the nerve as it runs through an opening called the carpel tunnel  Pain & tingling, can go up the arm to the shoulder and neck, causing waking to pain in middle of night 10
  • 11. TENNIS ELBOW  Overuse or misuse of the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis, or a painful inflammation of the tendons connecting these muscles to borns.  This may be when working, or during certain leisure activities, such as sports and gardening. Symptom are severe pain. 11
  • 12. Body Parts Prone To Workplace MSDs  Back - Lower  Neck and Upper Back  Upper Extremities - Arms and Hands  Lower Extremities - Legs and Feet 12
  • 13. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Signs and Symptoms  Decreased ROM  Decreased grip and/or pinch strength  Swelling  Fatigue  Loss of function  Numbness  Burning sensation  Tingling  Pain  Cramping  Stiffness 13
  • 14. Leading Causes of Back Problems • Poor Body Mechanics • Stressful Living & Working • Loss of Flexibility • Loss of Strength 14
  • 15. ERGNONIMICS APPROCHES • Body Mechanics • Proper Lifting Techniques • Exercise • Stretching • Improved postures 15
  • 16. PROPER WEIGHT LIFTING TECHNIQUE 16
  • 17. Posture check Increased stress, decreased circulation  High risk  Low risk 17
  • 18. Posture check Do you use a headset rather than cradling the telephone between your head and shoulder? 18
  • 19. ERGONOMIC ALIGNMENT 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Arranging Your Workspace  Arrange tools around your desk so you minimize the distance you have to reach for them. Divide your work space into three zones:  Primary work zone - the distance from elbow to hand. Things you touch on a daily basis.  Secondary work zone - within arm's reach. Use this zone to position those items that you use frequently, but don't need all the time.  Reference zone - outside arm's reach. Use this zone for your least-often used items. 21
  • 22. To be ergonomic , a design must • Fit the user • Be easy to use • Improve comfort • Improve performance • Improve health and safety 22
  • 23. ERGONOMICALLY DESIGNED CHAIR 23
  • 24. Materials storage and handling  Clear and mark transport routes  Provide ramps of 5-8% inclination instead of small stairs  Use mechanical devices for lifting, lowering and moving heavy material  Instead of carrying heavy weights divide them into smaller lightweights e.g. 2x10 kg instead of 20 kg.  Combine heavy lifting with physically lighter tasks 24
  • 25. Hand Tools  Use hanging tools for operations repeated in the same place  Provide hand support when using precision tools  Provide hand tools with a grip of the proper thickness (hand diameter 30-40 mm, handle length 125 mm and size to fit male hands)  Provide a home for each tool (Enables good housekeeping) 25
  • 26. Production machine safety  Locate controls in sequence of operations  Make displays and signals easy to distinguish and easy to read  Use properly fixed guards and interlock devices 26
  • 27. Lighting  Increased use of daylight  Light up the work area evenly  Sufficient lighting for working  Local lighting for precision work  Removing shiny surfaces  Avoid glare 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. Advantages of Ergonomics •Reduction of work-related injuries , higher safety •Higher productivity •Increased work quality •Reduced absenteeism , fatigue •Better design of machines 29
  • 30. Disadvantages  It costs money to develop and design it.  Usually take more time and resources than other methods  Very high effort in planning, recruiting, and executing than other methods  Much longer study periods and therefore requires much goodwill among the participants 30
  • 31. Applications  Assist in design & operation of man , m/c ,environmental study.  Help to know about the human activities, capability and limitations.  Helps to ensure physical and mental use of human beings. 31
  • 32. Difficulties in achieving the aims of ergonomics  Human operator is flexible and adaptable  Large individual differences Obvious differences: --> Physical size, strength Not obvious differences --> Culture, style, level of skill 32
  • 33. Work Smarter – Not Harder  Notice and report symptoms EARLY  Stretch  Take adequate and frequent breathers  Do a different task or do the task differently 33
  • 34. Conclusion..  As we discussed above ergonomics "DESIGNING THE JOB TO FIT THE WORKER , NOT FORCING THE WORKER TO FIT THE JOB“ So it will reduces the fatigue and improve the work conditions for the workers. 34
  • 35. Help Yourself  Micro-Breaks ◦ Every 20-40 minutes  Exercises ◦ Body stretch ◦ Raise forearms ◦ Shoulder blade squeeze/shrugs ◦ Eye palming ◦ Arm and shoulder shake ◦ Arm extensions ◦ Side bends 35
  • 36. Practice Wellness at Work and Home ! Exercise(Body) Nutrition(Mind) Relaxation(Spirit) 36
  • 37. THANK YOU…. 37

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