MultiFocusing© Technology
Content• MultiFocusing© theory• Enhanced prestack gathers• MultiFocusing© vs. conventional processing -examples around the...
The Image is the message……Conventional Processing      MultiFocusing© Processing
Pre-stack seismic data       MultiFocusing©               CMPWave front parameters                   Stacking Velocity    ...
Real geology is not simple
MultiFocusing© theory
Conventional stackCommon Reflection / Depth Point Stacking                 SHOTS                             RECEIVERS    ...
Conventional stack                              Normal move out equation is valid when only traces with equal             ...
MultiFocusing move-out correctionMultiFocusing time correction formula is valid for arbitrarysubsurface structure and for ...
2D MultiFocusing – 3 parametersCRE Radius & CEE Radius and emergence angleRcre – radius of curvature of common reflection ...
3D MultiFocusing - 8 parameters
MultiFocusing stack   The MF sums the data along the MF stacking surface
MultiFocusing stack                          Normal move out equation is valid when only traces with equal distance to sho...
Velocity corridor picking                  z0-Δz               Wavefront                   X0   t0+Δt                     ...
Conventional stack      sp1         sp2   sp3   sp4               sp5sp1         sp2                     sp3   sp4        ...
Geomage MultiFocusing stack      sp1         sp2   sp3   sp4               sp5sp1         sp2                     sp3   sp...
Rugged Topography – synthetic example             Synthetic horizontal reflector
Rugged Topography – real data  Conventional  MultiFocusing©
MultiFocusing anisotropy Anisotropy study begins with scanning for 5 parameters
Anisotropy attributes    V Slow              V Fast   V Azimuth
Anisotropy cubes
Enhanced Pre-Stack Gathers
Enhanced MultiFocusing gathers                                  MF stacking surface                              AThe MF s...
Enhanced MultiFocusing gathersOriginal Gather                  MF Enhanced Gather
MultiFocusing – enhanced pre-stack gathersMF Enhanced Gather    MF Enhanced Gather after MF-MoveOut
Original gathers
MultiFocusing enhanced gathers
MultiFocusing© vs. conventional processingExamples around the globe
The MultiFocusing method - advantages• Increases poor signal/noise ratio• Resolves signal over rugged topography• Resolves...
Reprocessing of vintage seismic dataConventional processing         MultiFocusing processing
Reprocessing of seismic data in foothillsConventional processing          MultiFocusing processing
Reprocessing of seismic data in ColombiaConventional processing           MultiFocusing processing
Reprocessing of seismic data in ColombiaConventional processing          MultiFocusing processing
Reprocessing of seismic data in ArgentinaConventional processing         MultiFocusing processing
Increasing vertical Resolution  (~ 25% in frequency bandwidth)Conventional processing            MultiFocusing processing
Salt dome body contouring                            Salt body
Better multiple attenuation
PSDM   Post stack depth migrated MF
PSDM   Post stack depth migrated MF
Depth 3D processingPSDM                  Post stack depth migrated MF
Eastern Europe (fold 32) – 1920 msConventional processing           MultiFocusing processing
500 msConventional processing            MultiFocusing processing
600 msConventional processing            MultiFocusing processing
Diffraction
Diffraction - definition                                        Obstacle           Wave frontA diffraction occurs when a w...
How do we identify discontinuities?
MultiFocusing ray scheme           X0                                     X0                                              ...
MultiFocusing scheme for diffractions                                         X0                                          ...
Numerical model                  Fractures
Fracture intensity                 Size of fracture: 1 x 0.3 meter
GMF Stack
GMF Post-STM
GMF Diffraction Stack
GMF Diffraction Post-STM
Geomage MultiFocusing – structure stack                        Offshore 2D – Mediterranean Basin
Geomage MultiFocusing – Diffraction stack                         Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
MultiFocusing – migrated diffraction stack                          Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
MultiFocusing – migrated diffraction stack Colored on migrated MF stack   Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
Example – 3D diffraction volume
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Geomage Presentation

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  • Real geological surfaces are not smooth and continuous. Looking at that image just emphasize that declaration. You can see faults, movements of interfaces, fractures of different scale, size and direction. It varies from 1 mm to several hundred meters. All of that have huge implication on the interpretation that we are doing during the exploration and production process. For example, knowing the direction of the fault or fractures play crucial role on the decision where to put a rig and how to do that.At the same time most of modern imaging methods including PSDM and PSTM are looking for smooth and continuous interfaces as part of its QC routine. Normally, small scale heterogeneities in the subsurface are detected by visual interpretation of the imaging(manual or automatic) which is indirect procedure. On other hand seismic wavefield contain direct information about those small scale objects. This information encrypted in Diffraction energy. So, in case we would find a way to detect and image that energy, we found the key for that code. This presentation presents a way how to do that using MultiFocusing method.So the motivation is pretty simple – the industry would like to know where the fractures, faults and salt flanks are.
  • reflector
  • Target orientedOptimization was done in order to be in reasonable timeframesDiffractivity clouds might indicate directly fractured and faulted zones.
  • Transcript of "Geomage Presentation"

    1. 1. MultiFocusing© Technology
    2. 2. Content• MultiFocusing© theory• Enhanced prestack gathers• MultiFocusing© vs. conventional processing -examples around the globe• Diffraction
    3. 3. The Image is the message……Conventional Processing MultiFocusing© Processing
    4. 4. Pre-stack seismic data MultiFocusing© CMPWave front parameters Stacking Velocity analysis analysis NMO/time and depthMultiFocusing imaging migration imaging
    5. 5. Real geology is not simple
    6. 6. MultiFocusing© theory
    7. 7. Conventional stackCommon Reflection / Depth Point Stacking SHOTS RECEIVERS 2 x2 t t 0 REFLECTOR V2 COMMON REFLECTING POINT
    8. 8. Conventional stack Normal move out equation is valid when only traces with equal distance to shot and receiver are stacked within a CDP gather (red) v Receiver coordinate v + v + + + v + + v + ++ + v + v + v + + Shot coordinate CMP position + CMP traces + MF traces
    9. 9. MultiFocusing move-out correctionMultiFocusing time correction formula is valid for arbitrarysubsurface structure and for arbitrary source-receiverconfigurations 2 (R )2 2 R X s sin Xs R (R )2 2 R X r sin Xr 2 R V0 V0 X s and X r source and receiver positions R ( RCRE , RCEE , ) are the radii of curvature of the wavefronts ( RCRE , X 0 , X s , X r , ) focusing parameter is the emergence angle of the normal ray
    10. 10. 2D MultiFocusing – 3 parametersCRE Radius & CEE Radius and emergence angleRcre – radius of curvature of common reflection elementRcee – radius of curvature of reflected surface
    11. 11. 3D MultiFocusing - 8 parameters
    12. 12. MultiFocusing stack The MF sums the data along the MF stacking surface
    13. 13. MultiFocusing stack Normal move out equation is valid when only traces with equal distance to shot and receiver are stacked within a CDP gather. Nearby traces (green) can not be used but are utilized by our MultiFocusing™ methodology. Receiver coordinate v v + v + + + v + + + + + v + ++ + + + + v ++ + + + + + v + + + + ++ + v + + + + + + v Shot coordinate CMP position + CMP traces + MF traces
    14. 14. Velocity corridor picking z0-Δz Wavefront X0 t0+Δt Xi z0 z0+Δz t0 X0 Xi X t0-Δt β TIME Rcre DEPTH Reflector
    15. 15. Conventional stack sp1 sp2 sp3 sp4 sp5sp1 sp2 sp3 sp4 sp5
    16. 16. Geomage MultiFocusing stack sp1 sp2 sp3 sp4 sp5sp1 sp2 sp3 sp4 sp5
    17. 17. Rugged Topography – synthetic example Synthetic horizontal reflector
    18. 18. Rugged Topography – real data Conventional MultiFocusing©
    19. 19. MultiFocusing anisotropy Anisotropy study begins with scanning for 5 parameters
    20. 20. Anisotropy attributes V Slow V Fast V Azimuth
    21. 21. Anisotropy cubes
    22. 22. Enhanced Pre-Stack Gathers
    23. 23. Enhanced MultiFocusing gathers MF stacking surface AThe MF sums the data along the green surface. The partial MF sums the dataaround the specified point (point A). The partial MF is shown in red coincideslocally with the MF stacking surface.
    24. 24. Enhanced MultiFocusing gathersOriginal Gather MF Enhanced Gather
    25. 25. MultiFocusing – enhanced pre-stack gathersMF Enhanced Gather MF Enhanced Gather after MF-MoveOut
    26. 26. Original gathers
    27. 27. MultiFocusing enhanced gathers
    28. 28. MultiFocusing© vs. conventional processingExamples around the globe
    29. 29. The MultiFocusing method - advantages• Increases poor signal/noise ratio• Resolves signal over rugged topography• Resolves curved reflectors/ dipping events• Resolves variable velocity• Azimuth preservation• Use diffraction to detect natural fracturing
    30. 30. Reprocessing of vintage seismic dataConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    31. 31. Reprocessing of seismic data in foothillsConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    32. 32. Reprocessing of seismic data in ColombiaConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    33. 33. Reprocessing of seismic data in ColombiaConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    34. 34. Reprocessing of seismic data in ArgentinaConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    35. 35. Increasing vertical Resolution (~ 25% in frequency bandwidth)Conventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    36. 36. Salt dome body contouring Salt body
    37. 37. Better multiple attenuation
    38. 38. PSDM Post stack depth migrated MF
    39. 39. PSDM Post stack depth migrated MF
    40. 40. Depth 3D processingPSDM Post stack depth migrated MF
    41. 41. Eastern Europe (fold 32) – 1920 msConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    42. 42. 500 msConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    43. 43. 600 msConventional processing MultiFocusing processing
    44. 44. Diffraction
    45. 45. Diffraction - definition Obstacle Wave frontA diffraction occurs when a wave encounters an obstacle.In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the apparent bending of wavesaround small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings.Research suggests that this can be used to map fractures in the sub-surface fromseismic.
    46. 46. How do we identify discontinuities?
    47. 47. MultiFocusing ray scheme X0 X0 β β Rcre Rcee О О Reflection interface D
    48. 48. MultiFocusing scheme for diffractions X0 β Rcre=Rcee О 2 R2 2 RX s sin Xs R R2 2 RX R sin XR 2 R V0 V0
    49. 49. Numerical model Fractures
    50. 50. Fracture intensity Size of fracture: 1 x 0.3 meter
    51. 51. GMF Stack
    52. 52. GMF Post-STM
    53. 53. GMF Diffraction Stack
    54. 54. GMF Diffraction Post-STM
    55. 55. Geomage MultiFocusing – structure stack Offshore 2D – Mediterranean Basin
    56. 56. Geomage MultiFocusing – Diffraction stack Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
    57. 57. MultiFocusing – migrated diffraction stack Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
    58. 58. MultiFocusing – migrated diffraction stack Colored on migrated MF stack Offshore 2D - Mediterranean Basin
    59. 59. Example – 3D diffraction volume
    60. 60. Thank You
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