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Year 11 2012 Geographical Themes Revision
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Year 11 2012 Geographical Themes Revision

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Thank you to others for some of this work. if it it yours please let us know so that it can be acknowledged. Put here purely to share with pupils.

Thank you to others for some of this work. if it it yours please let us know so that it can be acknowledged. Put here purely to share with pupils.

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  • 1. Settlement unitLand use, urban change, retail
  • 2.  The movement of people away from urban to rural areasKeywords check  (often as result of urban overcrowding) A negative reason which pushes you away from a certain place, e.g. crime Urbanisation  Highly built up areas, e.g. cities & towns Push Factor  Relatively inexpensive & common goods which are purchased frequently, e.g. milk Pull Factor  The area of more expensive residential development on the Suburb outskirts of urban areas CBD  A positive reason that attracts you towards a place, e.g. hope of employment Inner city / Twilight Zone  Central Business District, centre of an urban area with commercial value Urban Sprawl  The network of basic facilities & services that society needs in Settlement order to function, e.g. transport, communications, medical, etc. . Rural  An area/community where people live Urban  The countryside Infrastructure  Useful products / facilities such as shops, schools, libraries, etc. . Services  Slum areas found in LEDCs, poor quality spontaneous housing Low Order/convenience Goods  The area usually surrounding the CBD which contains terraced working class housing & industry in MEDC cities High Order/specialist Goods  The process of urban areas spreading outwards Counter-urbanisation  More expensive & rarely found goods, e.g. iPads, designer clothing Shanty town  Process of towns / urban areas becoming bigger over time
  • 3. Zone 1: Zone 2: 21 Zone 3: Zone 4: Zone 5: Burgess Urban Model The Hoyt Model Zone: Example area: Characteristics: Potential problems: = CBD =Industrial = =Inner City = Inner Suburb Outer Suburb
  • 4. 2. Large1. Leisure and detached 3. Very few 4. Most Zone 1:entertainment houses with driveways expensive facilities garages houses Zone 2: 8. Grew in 5. Shops and 6. Semi- 7. Newest response to Zone 3: Offices detached increased car houses with ownership Zone 4: gardens 9. High-rise flats may now 10. Parks and 11. Lots of 12. Oldest Zone 5: replace some open spaces public transportrun-down areas links MEDC case study: Portsmouth 13. Tall high 14. Cheapest 15. Land is 16. Terraced density housing cheaper housing - Grew rapidly with Industrial buildings Revolution / dockyard - Changing land-use from 18. Modern industrial to 17. Some out-of -town 19. High-value 20. Industry tourism/university/retail garages shopping land - Distinct zones but mixed centres pattern because is an island - Inner City, e.g. Fratton - Outer Suburbs, e.g. Cosham • Why are there tall high density buildings in the CBD? • Why are gardens so small in the zone near Priory? • Why do driveways become more common the suburbs? • Why would retail outlets / hypermarkets be found in the outer suburbs?
  • 5. Land use model for LEDCs Describe how the pattern of land-use is different from an LEDC to an MEDC urban area: ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………….Exam Qs:• Where is the best quality housing found in LEDCs? Why here? (2marks)• Where are shanty towns/ favelas located? Explain why. (3marks)• Describe the characteristics of shanty towns. (4marks) LEDC urban case study: Mumbai, India - Population 13.8million - Density 29’000 people per km sq - Dharavi shanty town, 1million people per km sq - Average annual income £2780 per person - Causes of overcrowding: natural increase, urbanisation - Consequences: shanty town growth, disease, poverty, overcrowding, etc.
  • 6. Increasing frequency of this settlementIncreasing population size & services Brownfield site: Capital Greenfield site: Cities Towns Villages/ Villages Hamlets Environmental Advantages of Brownfield Sites Advantages of Greenfield SitesDisadvantages of Brownfield Sites Disadvantages of Greenfield Sites
  • 7. Land use change Portsmouth: How has Gunwharf changed from 1999-2011? What is What problems ……………………………………………………………………… do cities have sustainability?.............................................................................. that are How has Southsea around Priory changed? unsustainable?………………………………………………………………………… Why have these changes occurred? ………………………………………………………………………. Are the changes sustainable? How do you think a ……………………………………………………………………… city can be made more sustainable? Case Studies for urban redevelopment / land use change: Portsmouth (Gunwharf Quays / Southsea) London (2012 Olympics / BedZed)
  • 8. Sustainable urban redevelopment? BedZed Gunwharf QuaysLondon 2012 Olympics
  • 9. Quality of Life Out of town shopping centres / supermarkets How has retail provision changed over time? E-tailing Clone townsMNCs Ethical shopping
  • 10. Exam Qs:- Describe two changes in retail provision. ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………- How have these changes in retail provision affected the quality of life of people? …….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Case study Qs:- Name & locate an urban area you have studied………………………………………………………- Describe how this urban area has been regenerated …………………………………………..…….……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………- Explain how this project is sustainable. …………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 11. Economic DevelopmentIndustry, employment, trade, aid, effects on environment
  • 12. Key terms• Standard of living • % of people who can read + write • Less Economically Developed• Quality of life Country • A statistic used to rank countries• Life expectancy by level of "human development” • More Economically Developed• HDI Country • How long on average people live• LEDC • How well-off a person or country is, focusing purely on economic• MEDC • How many babies die per 1000 born per year• Infant mortality • A measure of how happy and content people are with their lives• Literacy rate
  • 13. Physical - Landlocked countries - Lack of natural resources - Natural hazards - Lack of access to safe drinking water - Inhospitable climate: poor agriculture etc Economic Factors • Unfair Trade – Subsidies • Over reliance on farming • Growth of Multi national Historical Factors companies• Former colonies were • Lack of technology / Why is there resources left in turmoil after given independence a • Debt owed to other e.g. India development countries gap? Political Factors Cultural Factors • Instability e.g. civil war (land • Some indigenous tribes CHOOSE mines in Angola make land traditional way of life unusable) • Some societies e.g. Tibet don’t see • Power of West over others value in material goods • Corrupt government e.g. Zimbabwe
  • 14. Physical Factors – Bangladesh flooding • Regularly occurs due to monsoon season • Destroys buildings, infrastructure and communications • Can damage destroy crops and animals • Contaminates drinking water Economic Factors – Zimbabwe debtHistorical – India colony • Massive international- Former British colony debt – owes 145% of its total $GDP - Left in political • No money to invest in confusion, after being dragged through war CASE STUDY industry / infrastructure - Introduced new EXAMPLES diseases from UK Political – Sudan’s Civil war Cultural Factors – Tibet society - Arab vs non Arab communities • Buddhist monk society - Fighting over grazing rights & land • See no value in capitalism / money - Burnt farmlands, schools, hospitals • Choose freedom from stress, simple - In 2004 approx 50’000 deaths lifestyles mainly due to starvation, 200’000 refugees
  • 15. So, what is ‘aid’?• Aid is help that is given from one country to another in need – usually from MEDCs to help LEDCs/ LDCs (or to countries suffering from a sudden disaster)• Short term vs long term (more sustainable)• official government aid / voluntary aid / bilateral aid (tied aid)• Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) = private group that works in other countries but is free from government control, E.g. Red Cross, Oxfam, Greenpeace• Good aid (sustainable) = targeted aid, sustainable because invests in projects like education, healthcare, services, training for jobs CASE STUDIES = Goat Aid, Tanzania or Water Aid, Mali
  • 16. Types of industry (PSTQ) Primary industries = ‘take it’ (e.g. miners, farmers) Secondary industries = ‘make it’ (e.g. builders, mechanics) Tertiary industries = ‘service it’ (e.g. doctor, engineer) Quaternary industries = ‘think it’ (e.g. computer Q scientist, research & development) Higher number of workers Higher salary & skills T S P
  • 17. Why do LEDCs and MEDCs Outsourcing = saves money, work Rising costs = wage have different sent elsewhere to levels / laws etc, means save costs (e.g. call costs go up in MEDCs so employment patterns? centres) work moves elsewhere (e.g. manufacturing) Why do employment patterns change over Changes time? Technology = advances in ICT over time means more Transport = commuting & Why does industrial work from home migrating easier because there are now fewer barriers to travel location change over Competition = fewer people are time? needed to complete work now, e.g. banking uses ICT
  • 18. • What do different industries On the need access to?What might be the effects environment?of a decline in primary or Primary? E.g. near resourcessecondary industries onthat area? Secondary? E.g. transport links Tertiary? E.g. near consumers On local On the society? Raw Transpor economy? materials t links Capital (money) Labour (skilled / Location cheap) factors Availabili Primary case study = Kaweh Ijen ty of volcano, sulphur mining markets Environm Secondary = Samsung ent manufacturing, South Korea Energy Governme Tertiary = retail / services in nt policy supply Portsmouth, UK Quaternary = research and development Portsmouth IBM or Cambridge science Parks, UK
  • 19. GLOBALISATION = Global interconnectedness & interdependence. We are linked globally, sharing culture, technology, products, etc. International division of labour. How can industry MNC. Coca Cola case study affect the environment? • Accused of exploiting NICs/ LEDCs • Has bottling / manufacturing plants inPositive and negaitve India, Venezuela, etc., where labour + land costs are impacts? low, health and safety is minimal, etc. • E.g. over-extracting water in India (it takes 3litres of What would be the water to make 1litre of coke) – e.g. Kerala village loses 100’000litres of water a day effects of primary • In Rajahstan, India – Coca Cola took over the local waterindustry? Secondary? supply leaving agriculture to suffer Tertiary? • The water table dropped 10m • Also used pesticides 30x above recommended levels How can economic activity be • However, Coca Cola invested $1billion into the Indian sustainable? infrastructure, providing healthcare, roads, services • Coca Cola employs up to 125’000 people in India
  • 20. Primary Employment; Birth Rate; Infant Mortality; Life Expectancy; GDP; Death Rate; Energy Per Person; Food Intake; GDP per capita; Literacy Rate; People per doctor Economic Social Measures of Development The total of all money The amount of energy produced per year by a which each person in the country’s workers country uses per year The average number of The wealth shared out years a person can Number of patients equally among all the expect to live divided by the number of people of a country doctors The percentage of peopleThe number of births per in the country employed Number of adults who year per 1000 people in primary occupations can read and write in every 100 people The number of children per The number of deaths year out of every 1000 Number of kilocaloriesper year per 1000 people born alive that die before (kcals) each person in the they reach the age of one country takes in each day
  • 21. Questions to think about• Describe the pattern of development that is shown in the image [3marks]• Suggest some factors that influence development in a country [3marks]• Why might birth rates be high in LEDCs? [2marks]• Why would an MEDC have lower death rates? [2marks]
  • 22. Natural Hazards Plate boundaries, tectonic hazards, climatichazards, patterns, causes, effects, ma nagement
  • 23. Fault: A fracture in the Earth’s crust that shows signs of movement Continental drift: the movement of the continents over time through plate tectonics Subduction Zone: the area of a destructive plate boundary where one plate descends divergent beneath another convergent Convergent (aka destructive): where plates collide together, forcing one plate downwards to form either volcanoes or mountains or trenchestransform Divergent (aka constructive): where plates are moving apart, allowing magma from the mantle to reach the earth’s surface + create new land Transform: where plates slide past each other, causing lots of earthquakes Continental Crust: lighter, permanent land that forms our continents Oceanic Crust: denser crust under the oceans, constantly recycled
  • 24. What happens when the plates meet?Type of Margin Description of Changes Earthquake / Volcanic activity ExamplesConvergent (oceanic Oceanic crust is denser than Nazca plate, Southand continental) continental crust = subduction America occurs (sinks into the mantle) Sinking crust melts under friction & pressure…forms magma = creates volcanoesConvergent (two If both plates are continental, then Himalayascontinental) they are both too light to really subduct. Collision occurs = forms mountain chainsDivergent on Land A.K.A. ‘constructive’ boundary Mid-Atlantic ridge in As plates diverge, this allows Iceland magma to the surface. When crusts diverge on land, it forms a rift valley.Divergent under the When plates diverge under the The Mid-Atlantic Ridge isOcean ocean, magma rises to the surface the biggest area of to create new land. divergence As magma rises it cools, forming mountains / volcanoes / land.Transform Where plates slide past each San Andreas Fault, other. Creates a lot of earthquakes California as friction builds up then one plate jumps forward.
  • 25. Gas measurements – sulphur dioxide Seismic readings – earthquake increase Satellite imagery – measures bulges as magma moves up the volcano Temperature /acidity of soil - increasesWhy would people choose to live near volcanoes? What advantages would there be?
  • 26. • Earthquakes occur along faults, which are large cracks in the earth’s crust. Most of these are associated with plate boundaries.• They are caused by the sudden jerking movements of the fault, and are almost impossible to predict.• An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the crust due to movement of the Earths plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary.• Earthquakes are caused when the tension is released from inside the crust. This happens because plates do not move smoothly - sometimes they get stuck. When this happens a great deal of pressure builds up. When this pressure is eventually released, an earthquake tends to occur.• The point inside the Earths crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point above the focus, on the Earths surface is called the epicentre.• In an earthquake, energy is released in the form of waves. These are called seismic waves. The waves spread out from the focus. The strongest waves are found near the centre of the earthquake. This means that the most severe damage caused by an earthquake will happen close to the epicentre. Earthquakes are measured in two ways: - The Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake using an instrument called a seismograph. It measures the strength of the shaking. - The mercalli scale measures the damage caused by an earthquake. It rates each quake from I to XII, depending on how much damage was done
  • 27. Tidal waves Effects of earthquakes? Landslides Responses to hazards: Diseases from Injury and stagnant How does the effect of a deathFires water hazard differ between MEDC and LEDC? Buildings liquefaction destroyed Consider: Predicting the hazard Protecting against the hazard Responding to the hazard
  • 28. • Forms over warm ocean waters with temperatures of at least 27 C • Form between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn • Water must be at least 60 m deep • Form in hottest times of the year (May- Nov in northern hemisphere, Nov - Apr in southern hemisphere) • Low pressure system (air pressure low)Tropical storms areintensive, lowpressure weathersystems known indifferent parts ofthe world ashurricanes,cyclones, typhoons