GCSE Geography Case StudiesThese are worth 8 marks each. You will need to know all of the case studies in this document. A case study of a type of long Water Aid, Mali or Water Aid: Mali = LEDC ($GDPpc $1251, HDI 0.3), Inhospitable climate (low precipitation, term aid Goat Aid, Tanzania 65% country as desert, desertification problems, only 50% of population has access to safe drinking water), WaterAid working here since 2000, Trying to provide clean water + sanitation to the slums, education schemes, hygiene improvements, successful at reducing waterborne disease+ deaths from diarrhoea by 65%. Clean water & sewage = sustainable as improves health / people can work more = more tax, etc. Goat Aid: Tanzania, LEDC. Small goat herd provided for a family, provides milk, can be bred and then used for selling / meat / fur / milk, produce manure which improves crops, owners health improves, more money = more investment locally, especially successfully if given to young girls (the girl effect) as reduces chance of teenage pregnancy / prostitution / AIDS, etc. Goats may overgraze though and can lead to desertification. Sustainable. A case study of an economic LEDC: sulphur mining, KawehIjen volcano KawehIjen – Indonesia, sulphur mining in volcano. Local men climb volcano to dig out solid activity in an LEDC or MEDC Indonesia (primary industry) sulphur, carry to nearby secondary industries and sell for approx. $10 a day. Sulphur used toEconomic Development NIC: manufacturing in South Korea (e.g. bleach sugar white, for making matches, etc. Leads to major health problems, e.g. muscle Adidas clothing, Samsung electrics) distortion, rotting teeth, throat and lung cancer, etc. (secondary) Samsung electronics – South Korea. Cheap but skilled labour, produce electronics like TVs, MEDC: retail/services in Portsmouth mobile phones, etc. Government supports MNCs. Good transport links and communications (tertiary) Gunwharf Quays, Research & so encourages MNCs. Access to materials like steel, copper, etc. 41% all employment here. development at IBM Portsmouth or Gunwharf/Dockyard Portsmouth – UK. Tertiary retail and services. Easy access, tourist Cambridge Science Park destination (10million per year), historic sites, skilled workers. Navy service employs 21’000. Queen Alexandra hospital employs 30’000+. IBM quaternary also here because of links to university, large green spaces on outer suburbs. Cambridge Science parks – UK. Research and development, e.g. bio-science. Links to Cambridge university, good transport links on motorways, close to London. Skilled workers. 1200 high tech science companies here with 4000 workers. A case study of an MNC Coca Cola in India (LEDC) Coca Cola locates secondary manufacturing (making the drink and bottling it) in LEDCs / (multinational company) NICs because of cheaper labour and resources. In Rajahstan in India they bought up the local water supply leaving local agriculture to suffer, water table dropped 10m. Uses pesticides 30x higher than recommended. Local pollution. Over-extracts water : it takes 3litres water to make 1litre of coke. Kerala village loses 100’000 litres of water a day. However, employs 125’000 people in India and has invested $1billion in infrastructure like roads, electricity, healthcare, services. A case study of how economic Coca Cola in India (LEDC) or As above. activity affects the environment Tourism in Thailand (LEDC) A case study of urban change Gunwharf Quays, Portsmouth Gunwharf– brownfield ex-military/industrial site, change to mix land use from 1999 withSettlement to illustrate social, economic Olympic Site, Stratford Gunwharf Quays (mix residential, leisure, entertainment, commercial). Sustainable? S.E.E. and environmental planning BedZed, London Olympics – unsustainable? Improved residential, commercial opportunities through and its sustainability. hotels/shops/restaurants – short term. Short term 5000 employment. Longer term improved facilities / environment. Reused brownfield site. Improvement to derelict / deprived area. BedZed – regeneration of brownfield site. Has purpose-built Eco-park, leisure + recreation, all
necessary services (e.g. schools) + local jobs to reduce transport need. Environmentally- friendly housing design, low-energy use, renewable energy sources.Only 82homes so reduced impact. Homes use only 10% normal heating energy and locals produce 56% less CO2 than average UK resident. A case study to illustrate how Portsmouth Decline of local goods retail around Fawcett Road, area now offers discount goods or low- retail service provision changes order consumer goods (e.g. Mack & sons discount). over time. Decline of old town centre Tricorn shopping centre, redeveloped into Cascades. Cascades continues to be improved (e.g. recent development of mall to include TK Maxx, etc.) Change of retail provision from CBD toward Gunwharf – so less competition for high street the Quays offers discount brands / designer/ outlet prices. However decline of Port Solent. Move towards out-of-town supermarkets + retail outlets, e.g. hypermarkets, Ocean Retail park, etc. . Also remember e-tailing, clone towns, ethical shopping, etc,. An LEDC Volcano Montserrat 1997. Soufriere Hills volcano. LEDC. Well managed by USA – evacuation of 8000 people. Only 19deaths. Explosive eruption. Pyroclastic flows, mudflows, half of island covered in ash, capital Plymouth covered 10m in ash/mudflows. £14million aid from UK alone. South of island still uninhabitable. An MEDC Volcano Iceland 2010. MEDC. Eyjafjallajokull volcano. Part of mid-Atlantic ridge. Fissure eruption. Ash cloud up to 30000ft in atmosphere – caused air chaos. South coast of Iceland far from residential areas so low impact here. Subglacial – melted 150m thick ice cap. Major floods – destroyed roads. 20farms destroyed. No deaths. Air chaos – 95000 flights cancelled, passengers stranded, $2billion losses for airlines, London lost £102million in lost tourism. An LEDC Earthquake Haiti 2010. 7.0 richter scale. LEDC. Epicentre 25km from capital. 250’000 homes destroyed. 300’000 injured. 500’000 homeless. 230’000 died. Spread of diseases like cholera (stagnant water). Temporary shelter provided, $80million foreign aid. Set back the economy + causedHazards massive debt. An MEDC Earthquake Japan 2011. 9.0 Richter. MEDC. Japan v well prepared for EQs (have earthquake-proof buildings, preparation days, etc.) but followed by tsunami up to 10m high as far as Tokyo. Moved Honshu island by 6feet. 15’000 dead and still rising – mostly from tsunami / drowning. Caused nuclear powerplant explosions – radiation leak, radiation sickness, quarantine zone, homelessness. An LEDC tropical storm Cyclone Nargis, Burma 2008. 600mm rain in few days. Category 3-4 storm, 215mph winds. Low lying land, storm surge. Floods, disease, no clean water. Government refused aid (dictator government). 146’000 died. $10million damages. An MEDC tropical storm Hurricane Katrina, USA 2005. Mostly Louisiana, Florida. New Orleans worst hit. Category 3, 175mph winds. Storm surge floods of 3-10m, broke levee defences. 1200 died – 600 from disease. Stagnant water = typhoid. 80% city evacuated but too late. Slow sending in response (government blamed). 40% city still uninhabited a year later. Hit poorest areas worst. Most costly disaster in US history - $191 billion. 1million homeless.