Welcome to GCSE Geography
Name
Mr Rogers Geography
June 2012 Exam
Coasts and Rivers
Hazards
Economic Geography
Rivers and Coasts
32% of final Mark
Final exam June 2011 and Controlled
Assessment
Economic Geography
16% of final Mark
Final exam June 2011
Settlement and Population
25% of final Mark
Sustainable Decision Making Exam
Jan 2012
Hazards
16% of final Mark
Final exam June 2011
Where are you now?
0 240
C - 144
Your target in to get at least 40 / 60 marks in the Controlled Assessment. 24
available f...
Help!
drogers@priory.portsmouth.sch.uk
www.facebook.com/classroomgeography
@priorygeography
www.classroomgeography.blogspo...
Homework Due Wednesday 14th September
Produce a factfile of a place that has been eroded by
the coast
Email to drogers@pri...
Starter: How did this feature form? (4)
Marine Erosion
Processes
VV ‘05
The force of waves
hitting a cliff (or sea
wall) compresses
water and air into
cracks and joints. This
can be equivalent t...
Corrasion (abrasion)
Rock fragments may be picked
up by waves and thrown
against the rock face of cliffs
by subsequent wav...
Attrition
Currents and tidal
movements cause the
fragments to be swirled
around and to grind against
each other.
This type...
Corrosion
Salts and acids in sea
water can react with
rocks , slowly
dissolving them away.
.
Why does erosion matter?
Video
Create four ‘Kung Fu’ actions to represent each
coastal erosion process
How have coastal processes shaped this landform? (4
marks)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/geographyal
ltheway_photos/sets/72157621775281810
/with/319733211/
• Look at the landforms.
•...
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/opengeoscience/go
oglemaps625/default625.htm
• Google mash up
Rates of erosion depend on many factors:
• Waves – strength, frequency, height
• Weather – frequency of storm conditions
•...
Coastlines of Erosion
1. Headlands and bays
2. Cliffs and wave cut platforms
3. Headland erosion and the formation of cave...
Headlands and bays
• These are most likely to be found in areas where alternating
resistant and less resistant rock meets ...
Softer rock
Harder rock
Harder rock
chalk
clay
limestone
Swanage
Bay
An example of headlands and
bays on the Dorset coastline…
The waves attack the base of the cliff through the processes
of abrasion, corrosion, hydraulic action and attrition.
Over ...
Wave cut notch - Auchmithie
Destructive coastlines
Destructive Waves
• BACKwash is stronger than the Swash
• Cause EROSION
• Draw the annotated Destructive wave
diagram on p...
Exam Question:
Name features X
and Y. Explain
how they
formed. Use an
annotated
diagram in your
answer. (5)
X
Y
The waves attack the base of the cliff through the processes
of abrasion, corrosion, hydraulic action and attrition.
Over ...
1
High Tide
Low Tide
Corrasion occurs
between high and low
tide- rocks are
hurled at the base of
the cliff.
2
Wave Cut Notch
Eroded
material
available to
take part in
corrasion.
Cliff is undercut,
leaving it
unstable.
3
Cliff retreats
Wave Cut
Platform-
corrasion can
not occur
below low
tide.
Wave Cut Notch
The process of
corrasion will
c...
4
Cliff retreats
Wave Cut
Platform.
Using the terms
below, produce a four
picture storyboard
explaining the
process that produces
a wave cut platform.
High Ti...
Headland erosion
Caves, arches, stacks and stumps
Caves
Caves usually develop from widening
and deepening of notches where
there are weaknesses in the cliff face
This large...
Erosive waves may blast their way
vertically through lines of weakness
in the roofs of caves.
This produces a blowhole on ...
This huge blowhole is the Gaylet Pot near Auchmithie. The tractor on the
skyline is at the top of the cliffs.
Arches
These are formed by the
wearing away of narrow
headlands often by two
back-to-back cave
systems joining.
Durdle Doo...
Here a cave and arch are forming on the same headland at
Auchmithie
Stacks and stumps
Stacks often represent the seaward remnant
of a collapsed arch. These tall, isolated
pillars of rock suc...
The ‘Deil’s Heid’ stack at
Arbroath is interesting
because sea level has
fallen since it was
formed.
There is very little ...
We can now imagine how
the headland at Durdle Door
might be evolving
Durdle Door in
the past………
Durdle Door
As it is at present
………
Durdle Door
sometime in
the future?
Old Harry Rocks in Dorset which show many of the
features of headland erosion
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sacherfire/217113480/
1
You need your
template. This will
represent a chalk
headland.
2
3
Using a green crayon-
shade the middle
horizontal strip- this
represents the top of
the headland- exposed
to weathering.
4
5
Carefully cut out all the
black areas on the
template- with the
exception of the wave-
cut notch.
6
It should look like
this...
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1
2
3
4 5
6
About the template...
You could draw your own template or print this slide and use for the model.
The template should be A...
Write a voice over for the next clip. Your script should
explain how the feature formed
Destructive Coastlines
Feature or Land
use
Grid Square
Bay
Headland
Stack
Cave
Ancient use of land
Tourism Car Park 82 80
...
Why are maps and grid references
vital?
Why Grid References?
All about Grid References
For the exam
• Have to be happy with 4 and 6 figure grid
references
Contructive Coastlines
1. Processes of Transportation
2. Features of Coastal Deposition :
Beaches and Sand Dune Systems
Sp...
Constructive waves
• Diagram on page 89
BackwashSwash
Transportation of beach material
• Prevailing winds cause
waves to approach the
beach at an oblique angle
• ...
This movement of sediment
along the coastline is
called..
Direction of movement
swas
h
Backwash is always at
right angles ...
Groynesare sometimes built (as here on Aberbeen beach)
to counteract the process of longshore drift and encourage the
accu...
……such as here at Barton-on-Sea on the south coast of
England where the groynes at Christchurch have
deprived this stretch...
Beaches develop where the supply of sediment exceeds loss through backwash and
longshore drift. Beaches are usually distin...
Some features of
a shingle beach ..
largest material is
furthest from the sea
Successively
lower berms
Berms represent
suc...
Sand beaches have a
more gentle profile.
This is the result of a
number of factors…
Wet sand compacts so water doesn’t dra...
But that’s a story for another
As on-shore winds blow across dry beach sand, it carries material
inland to form sand dune ...
Spits and Bars
Where there is a change in the coastline e.g. a
headland or an estuary mouth, longshore drift may
continue ...
Spurn Head at the mouth of the Humber estuary is a
fine example of a spit.
Local currents and changes in wind direction may
curve the end of the spit landwards creating a
hooked tip.
The presence o...
If a spit joins one part of the mainland to another it is called a
bar.
For example, there is a bar at Slapton Sands in Devon.
Tombolo
Where a spit
joins the
mainland to an
island a
tombolo may
be created .
The longest and best known tombolo in Brit...
Chesil Beach viewed from the Isle of Portland
How people use coastal landforms
Landform How used Constructive or
Destructive?
Beachy Head – Headland Tourism – sight see...
With thanks to:
Val Vannet,
Dan Raven-Ellison, and
Tony Cassidy
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
Coastal processes this one
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  • Give out target sheets. Get each pupil to work out how many marks they need to get to 40 out of 60 and how many to get a C.
  • Bawdsey Suffolk – measure out. Picture of flags Picture of flags http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqc7wXdkOp4 17 meters in one year.
  • Coastal Kung fu
  • Coastal processes this one

    1. 1. Welcome to GCSE Geography
    2. 2. Name Mr Rogers Geography June 2012 Exam Coasts and Rivers Hazards Economic Geography
    3. 3. Rivers and Coasts 32% of final Mark Final exam June 2011 and Controlled Assessment
    4. 4. Economic Geography 16% of final Mark Final exam June 2011
    5. 5. Settlement and Population 25% of final Mark Sustainable Decision Making Exam Jan 2012
    6. 6. Hazards 16% of final Mark Final exam June 2011
    7. 7. Where are you now? 0 240 C - 144 Your target in to get at least 40 / 60 marks in the Controlled Assessment. 24 available for this project. CA SDME
    8. 8. Help! drogers@priory.portsmouth.sch.uk www.facebook.com/classroomgeography @priorygeography www.classroomgeography.blogspot.com Workshop Wednesday
    9. 9. Homework Due Wednesday 14th September Produce a factfile of a place that has been eroded by the coast Email to drogers@priory.portsmouth.sch.uk
    10. 10. Starter: How did this feature form? (4)
    11. 11. Marine Erosion Processes VV ‘05
    12. 12. The force of waves hitting a cliff (or sea wall) compresses water and air into cracks and joints. This can be equivalent to 30,000kg per square metre. This increase in pressure may lead to cracks widening and pieces of rock breaking off. Hydraulic Action
    13. 13. Corrasion (abrasion) Rock fragments may be picked up by waves and thrown against the rock face of cliffs by subsequent waves. The effectiveness of the corrasion depends on the strength of the wave, the nature of its ‘load’ and the resistance of the rock in the cliff face. Corrasion is most effective at the base of cliffs
    14. 14. Attrition Currents and tidal movements cause the fragments to be swirled around and to grind against each other. This type of erosion produces pebble beaches.
    15. 15. Corrosion Salts and acids in sea water can react with rocks , slowly dissolving them away. .
    16. 16. Why does erosion matter? Video
    17. 17. Create four ‘Kung Fu’ actions to represent each coastal erosion process
    18. 18. How have coastal processes shaped this landform? (4 marks)
    19. 19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/geographyal ltheway_photos/sets/72157621775281810 /with/319733211/ • Look at the landforms. • What factors affect the rate of erosion?
    20. 20. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/opengeoscience/go oglemaps625/default625.htm • Google mash up
    21. 21. Rates of erosion depend on many factors: • Waves – strength, frequency, height • Weather – frequency of storm conditions • Geology of the coastline : type of rock degree of resistance stratification stability
    22. 22. Coastlines of Erosion 1. Headlands and bays 2. Cliffs and wave cut platforms 3. Headland erosion and the formation of caves, blowholes, arches, stacks and stumps
    23. 23. Headlands and bays • These are most likely to be found in areas where alternating resistant and less resistant rock meets the coast at right angles • Erosion erodes the softer rocks more quickly forming bays • Headlands are formed of rocks which are more resistant to erosion
    24. 24. Softer rock Harder rock Harder rock
    25. 25. chalk clay limestone Swanage Bay An example of headlands and bays on the Dorset coastline…
    26. 26. The waves attack the base of the cliff through the processes of abrasion, corrosion, hydraulic action and attrition. Over time the cliff will be undercut and a wave-cut notch is formed. Eventually the cliff becomes unstable and collapses. Further cliff retreat will form a wave-cut platform. The formation of cliffs and wave cut platforms
    27. 27. Wave cut notch - Auchmithie
    28. 28. Destructive coastlines
    29. 29. Destructive Waves • BACKwash is stronger than the Swash • Cause EROSION • Draw the annotated Destructive wave diagram on p 89
    30. 30. Exam Question: Name features X and Y. Explain how they formed. Use an annotated diagram in your answer. (5) X Y
    31. 31. The waves attack the base of the cliff through the processes of abrasion, corrosion, hydraulic action and attrition. Over time the cliff will be undercut and a wave-cut notch is formed. Eventually the cliff becomes unstable and collapses. Further cliff retreat will form a wave-cut platform. The formation of cliffs and wave cut platforms
    32. 32. 1 High Tide Low Tide Corrasion occurs between high and low tide- rocks are hurled at the base of the cliff.
    33. 33. 2 Wave Cut Notch Eroded material available to take part in corrasion. Cliff is undercut, leaving it unstable.
    34. 34. 3 Cliff retreats Wave Cut Platform- corrasion can not occur below low tide. Wave Cut Notch The process of corrasion will continue…
    35. 35. 4 Cliff retreats Wave Cut Platform.
    36. 36. Using the terms below, produce a four picture storyboard explaining the process that produces a wave cut platform. High Tide Low Tide Wave Cut Notch Corrasion Retreat Wave cut platform Cliff
    37. 37. Headland erosion
    38. 38. Caves, arches, stacks and stumps
    39. 39. Caves Caves usually develop from widening and deepening of notches where there are weaknesses in the cliff face This large cave at Arbroath is fault guided. Can you see the fault?
    40. 40. Erosive waves may blast their way vertically through lines of weakness in the roofs of caves. This produces a blowhole on the cliff top. In stormy conditions sea spray may spout from blowholes. Blowholes
    41. 41. This huge blowhole is the Gaylet Pot near Auchmithie. The tractor on the skyline is at the top of the cliffs.
    42. 42. Arches These are formed by the wearing away of narrow headlands often by two back-to-back cave systems joining. Durdle Door The waves continue to erode at the foot of the arch widening it. Eventually the roof of the arch can no longer be supported and it will collapse.
    43. 43. Here a cave and arch are forming on the same headland at Auchmithie
    44. 44. Stacks and stumps Stacks often represent the seaward remnant of a collapsed arch. These tall, isolated pillars of rock such as ‘The Pinnacles’ on the Dorset coast, are reduced by further wave action to stumps.
    45. 45. The ‘Deil’s Heid’ stack at Arbroath is interesting because sea level has fallen since it was formed. There is very little erosion around its base so it is unlikely to become a stump for a very long time.
    46. 46. We can now imagine how the headland at Durdle Door might be evolving Durdle Door in the past………
    47. 47. Durdle Door As it is at present ………
    48. 48. Durdle Door sometime in the future?
    49. 49. Old Harry Rocks in Dorset which show many of the features of headland erosion
    50. 50. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sacherfire/217113480/
    51. 51. 1 You need your template. This will represent a chalk headland.
    52. 52. 2
    53. 53. 3 Using a green crayon- shade the middle horizontal strip- this represents the top of the headland- exposed to weathering.
    54. 54. 4
    55. 55. 5 Carefully cut out all the black areas on the template- with the exception of the wave- cut notch.
    56. 56. 6 It should look like this...
    57. 57. 7
    58. 58. 8
    59. 59. 9
    60. 60. 10
    61. 61. 11
    62. 62. 12
    63. 63. 13
    64. 64. 14
    65. 65. 1 2 3 4 5 6
    66. 66. About the template... You could draw your own template or print this slide and use for the model. The template should be A5 to fit into across a A4 exercise book- of course you could supersize the model.
    67. 67. Write a voice over for the next clip. Your script should explain how the feature formed
    68. 68. Destructive Coastlines Feature or Land use Grid Square Bay Headland Stack Cave Ancient use of land Tourism Car Park 82 80 Camping
    69. 69. Why are maps and grid references vital?
    70. 70. Why Grid References?
    71. 71. All about Grid References
    72. 72. For the exam • Have to be happy with 4 and 6 figure grid references
    73. 73. Contructive Coastlines 1. Processes of Transportation 2. Features of Coastal Deposition : Beaches and Sand Dune Systems Spits Bars and Tombolos VV ‘05
    74. 74. Constructive waves • Diagram on page 89
    75. 75. BackwashSwash Transportation of beach material • Prevailing winds cause waves to approach the beach at an oblique angle • Swash pushes beach material diagonally up the beach • Gravity pulls the backwash at right angles back to the sea taking beach material with it • Over time this moves material along the beach in a zig-zag fashion
    76. 76. This movement of sediment along the coastline is called.. Direction of movement swas h Backwash is always at right angles to the beach Longshore Drift
    77. 77. Groynesare sometimes built (as here on Aberbeen beach) to counteract the process of longshore drift and encourage the accumulation of sand. This can, however, result in depletion of sand and an increase in erosion further along the coastline……
    78. 78. ……such as here at Barton-on-Sea on the south coast of England where the groynes at Christchurch have deprived this stretch of coastline of beach material. As a consequence, the beach at Barton has almost disappeared and the cliffs are eroding. To prevent further erosion, rock armour (rip rap ) has been placed on what is left of the beach
    79. 79. Beaches develop where the supply of sediment exceeds loss through backwash and longshore drift. Beaches are usually distinguished as either … Shingle or Sand Shingle beaches are free draining so there is little backwash of material to sea. As a consequence, they are usually steeper.
    80. 80. Some features of a shingle beach .. largest material is furthest from the sea Successively lower berms Berms represent successive levels of beach material from storms and high tides
    81. 81. Sand beaches have a more gentle profile. This is the result of a number of factors… Wet sand compacts so water doesn’t drain through it. This means that backwash, and the material it is carrying, is able to return to the sea. Sand is smoother than shingle so there is less friction to prevent the return of beach materials to the sea
    82. 82. But that’s a story for another As on-shore winds blow across dry beach sand, it carries material inland to form sand dune systems
    83. 83. Spits and Bars Where there is a change in the coastline e.g. a headland or an estuary mouth, longshore drift may continue to deposit sediments into the sea forming a spit.
    84. 84. Spurn Head at the mouth of the Humber estuary is a fine example of a spit.
    85. 85. Local currents and changes in wind direction may curve the end of the spit landwards creating a hooked tip. The presence of the estuary discharging river water into the sea prevents the spit from developing into a bar. Such a feature is known as a recurved spit wind
    86. 86. If a spit joins one part of the mainland to another it is called a bar.
    87. 87. For example, there is a bar at Slapton Sands in Devon.
    88. 88. Tombolo Where a spit joins the mainland to an island a tombolo may be created . The longest and best known tombolo in Britain is Chesil Beach.
    89. 89. Chesil Beach viewed from the Isle of Portland
    90. 90. How people use coastal landforms Landform How used Constructive or Destructive? Beachy Head – Headland Tourism – sight seeing Destructive
    91. 91. With thanks to: Val Vannet, Dan Raven-Ellison, and Tony Cassidy
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