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IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
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IB Geography: Ecosystems: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System

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http://www.geographyalltheway.com/ib_geography/ib_ecosystems/tundra/tundra_human_impacts.html

http://www.geographyalltheway.com/ib_geography/ib_ecosystems/tundra/tundra_human_impacts.html

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  • 1. The Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline System
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
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  • 7.
    • Case Study: Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
    • Designed and constructed to move oil from the North Slope of Alaska to the most northerly ice free port – Valdez.
    • Length – 800 miles (1300km).
    • Diameter – 48 inches.
    • Crosses three mountain ranges and 834 rivers and streams.
    • Oil was discovered in 1968 – 7 years of planning.
    • Cost $8 billion to build in 1977.
    • Construction began in March 1975.
    • More than 70,000 people worked at some point on the project (31 people died).
    • The first oil moved through the pipeline on June, 20 th 1977.
    • Delivers 20% of US domestic oil production.
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • Permafrost and Vegetation
    • The oil which runs through the pipes is at 82 o C. This would melt the permafrost which would destroy the delicate environment. Melting permafrost causes subsidence which would cause the pipeline to sink and break.
    • 420 miles of the pipeline are above the ground.
    • 4 miles are refrigerated below ground.
    • For 376 miles of thaw-stable and non-permafrost areas, the pipe is laid below ground.
    • Vegetation in the Tundra can take 20 years to grow again once disturbed due to the short growing season and harsh conditions. Quick growing species were introduced once construction finished to stabilise the area.
    • The pipe line has been designed with radiators to allow heat to escape into the air rather than the ground.
  • 11.  
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  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • Wildlife
    • Caribou, plentiful in Alaska, migrate seasonally looking for grazing land.
    • The pipeline would provide a barrier against migration. Therefore parts of the pipeline have had to be build up to 10 feet above ground and some parts build underground. Those part build underground, in permafrost areas, have had to be refrigerated.
    • There are also wolves, bears and many other rare Arctic species.
  • 15.  
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  • 20.
    • Design Features
    • A zig-zag design allows flexibility in movement.
    • When the hot oil flows through the pipes they expand and contract again when they cool. The pipe can expand as much as 4 feet per mile of pipe.
    • Special values have been placed at several points along the pipeline which would shut down in case of a break to minimise damage.
    • The whole pipeline can be shut down in 4 minutes.
  • 21.  
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  • 25.
    • Earthquake Residence
    • The zig-zag design allows movement during a quake.
    • The pipe is mounted on special sliding joints which move with an earthquake. If the pipeline was fixed it would crack and rupture.
    • Designed to resist a quake of between 5.5 – 8.5 on the Richter Scale.
    • At the Denali Fault the pipeline is designed to move 20 ft side ways and 5 feet vertically.
    • Earthquake tremors and ground movements are continually monitored.
  • 26.  
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  • 30.
    • Valdez
    • Most northerly ice free port.
    • Deep anchorage.
    • Delicate ecosystem where an oil spill would be disastrous.
    • Alyeska, who own the pipeline, spends $60 million each year on oil spill prevention and response.
    • All tankers are escorted by special vessels when in Prince William Sound to help navigate the difficult waters and avoid possible ice-bergs.
  • 31.  

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