IB Geography > Ecosystems > Nutrient Cycling

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IB Geography > Ecosystems > Nutrient Cycling

  1. 1. Nutrient Cycling What are nutrients? Nutrient Stores Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle Human Impact Upon Nutrient Cycling
  2. 2. What are nutrients?
  3. 3. What are nutrients? Nutrients are the chemical elements and compounds needed for organisms to grow and function. Energy flow and nutrient cycling are interdependent. The rate of nutrient cycling may limit the rate that energy can be trapped. For example: plants cannot make new cells to trap energy (grow) if essential nutrients are absent.
  4. 4. Nutrient Stores
  5. 5. Nutrient Stores There are three compartments within an ecosystem that store nutrients.
  6. 6. Nutrient Store - Soil Soil by Flat6
  7. 7. Nutrient Store - Soil The unconsolidated mineral material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. Soil by Flat6
  8. 8. Nutrient Store - Litter leaf litter by sindesign
  9. 9. Nutrient Store - Litter The amount of organic matter, including humus and leaf litter, in the soil. leaf litter by sindesign
  10. 10. Nutrient Store - Biomass Rainforest living up to its name by pfly
  11. 11. Nutrient Store - Biomass The total mass of living organisms, mainly plant tissue. Rainforest living up to its name by pfly
  12. 12. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles
  13. 13. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Biomass Litter Soil
  14. 14. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Soil
  15. 15. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Soil
  16. 16. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Loss in runoff Soil
  17. 17. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Release as litter decomposes Loss in runoff Soil
  18. 18. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Release as litter decomposes Uptake by plants Loss in runoff Soil
  19. 19. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Release as litter decomposes Uptake by plants Loss in runoff Soil Input weathered from rock
  20. 20. Model of the mineral nutrient cycle - Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycles Input dissolved in rainfall Biomass Fall out as tissues die Litter Release as litter decomposes Uptake by plants Loss in runoff Soil Loss by leaching Input weathered from rock
  21. 21. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Rainforest Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow
  22. 22. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Rainforest Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow Precipitation Biomass Fallout Pathway Litter Uptake Pathway Runoff Soil Decay Pathway Leaching Weathering
  23. 23. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Grasslands Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow
  24. 24. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Grasslands Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow Precipitation Fallout Pathway Biomass Litter Uptake Pathway Runoff Decay Pathway Soil Leaching Weathering
  25. 25. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tundra Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow
  26. 26. Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tundra Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow Precipitation Biomass Fallout Pathway Litter Uptake Pathway Runoff Soil Decay Pathway Leaching Weathering
  27. 27. The Carbon Cycle
  28. 28. Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  29. 29. Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  30. 30. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  31. 31. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  32. 32. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  33. 33. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  34. 34. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  35. 35. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion Carbon in animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  36. 36. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion Carbon in death animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  37. 37. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion Carbon in death animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  38. 38. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  39. 39. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  40. 40. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  41. 41. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  42. 42. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death respiration of composers Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  43. 43. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death respiration of composers Carbon in dead organic matter Carbon in fossil fuels
  44. 44. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death respiration of composers Carbon in dead organic matter fossilisation Carbon in fossil fuels
  45. 45. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death respiration of composers Carbon in dead organic matter fossilisation Carbon in fossil fuels
  46. 46. photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Carbon in plants in atmosphere respiration ingestion / digestion respiration of animals Carbon in death animals death respiration of composers Carbon in dead organic matter fossilisation Carbon in burning fossil fuels
  47. 47. The Nitrogen Cycle
  48. 48. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  49. 49. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  50. 50. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  51. 51. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  52. 52. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  53. 53. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  54. 54. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  55. 55. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  56. 56. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  57. 57. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  58. 58. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  59. 59. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Death / nitrification Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  60. 60. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Death / nitrification Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  61. 61. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Death / nitrification Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Digestion Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  62. 62. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Death / nitrification Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Digestion Nitrogen Compounds in animals
  63. 63. Nitrogen in the Nitrogen fixing atmosphere bacteria lightening Nitrogen fixation Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogen compounds in soil Death / nitrification Protein synthesis Nitrogen compounds in plants Digestion Nitrogen Death / excretion Compounds in animals
  64. 64. Human Impact Upon Nutrient Cycling
  65. 65. verde... by Ana Cotta
  66. 66. Deforestation - Backcountry Mad 7256-17A by World Resources Institute Staff
  67. 67. Revision: Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Rainforest Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow
  68. 68. Revision: Gersmehl’s Nutrient Cycle - Tropical Rainforest Circles: Compartments size proportional to amount of nutrient stored. Arrows: Width proportional to amount of nutrient flow Precipitation Biomass Fallout Pathway Litter Uptake Pathway Runoff Soil Decay Pathway Leaching Weathering
  69. 69. Precipitation Biomass Fallout Pathway Litter Uptake Pathway Runoff Soil Decay Pathway Leaching Weathering
  70. 70. Trees logged and removed Precipitation Biomass Fallout Pathway Litter Crop harvest Uptake Pathway Biomass Runoff Soil Precipitation Decay Pathway Crop Leaching Litter Weathering Ash - if burnt nutrients enter the soil as ash, such minerals are quickly used in crops or washed or leached Increased runoff Soil through the soil. Increased leaching
  71. 71. Ensure that you could discuss the impact of human activity upon the nutrient cycles in a named location. Sources of possible case study material: http://www.diigo.com/user/geogalot/rainforest_human_impacts

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