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IB Geography: Drainage Basins:  Mississippi Floods
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IB Geography: Drainage Basins: Mississippi Floods

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  • 1. Mississippi Floods, 1993.
  • 2. When and Where
    • The summer of 1993
    • Mississippi River, USA –
  • 3.  
  • 4. Scale
    • Image is 185 km across, north is in the top left corner.
  • 5.
    • Causes of the flooding:
    • Higher than normal rainfall during first half of 1993.
    • Individual storms frequently dumped large volumes of precipitation that could not be accommodated by local streams.
    • The ground was saturated because of cooler than normal conditions during the previous year.
    • The river system had been altered over the previous century by the draining of wetlands and the construction of levees.
  • 6. Agricultural and Residential Damage
  • 7. Commercial Damage and Other Effects
    • 150 levees collapsed under the pressure of the water.
    • Dams burst.
    • Bridges closed.
    • 48 people killed.
    • 70,000 people evacuated from their homes.
    • Final damage cost estimated at $10 billion.
    • Over 25% of the crops were lost.
  • 8. Urban
  • 9. Rural
  • 10. Communication
  • 11. Residential
  • 12. Community Action
  • 13. Flood Protection
  • 14. Clean Up
  • 15. Mud
  • 16. Hose Down
  • 17. Drinking Water
  • 18. Homeless
  • 19. Failed Crops
  • 20. Valmeyer, Illinois
  • 21.
    • Modification of the Mississippi:
    • 80% of wetlands drained since 1940’s
    • River channel constrained by levees and floodwalls.
    • Levees had not been built high enough to cope with this level of flood (a 1 in 100 year event).
    • Reservoirs had been built on the tributaries to store floodwater but not on main river as it would halt transportation.
    • Channelisation – deepening, widening, straightening, lining.
  • 22. Human Impacts
  • 23. River Engineering
  • 24.