On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Definitions of key words like “define migration”
Push and Pull factors
Use of pie charts and other resources to gather data.
Changing Urban Environments.
Definitions of key words like “define CBD”
Pollution within cities
Use of tables and charts to gather data.
CBD and land use within cities.
Methods to improve cities – rich and poor.
Issues within cities – both rich and poor.
Section B – TWO QUESTIONS
Definitions of key words like “define Eco-tourism”
Use of tables and charts to gather data.
Types of tourist environments and reasons to go there.
Mass tourism and eco-tourism
Impact of tourism on places
The response of an area to tourism – Bulter Model.
Year 11 Glossary<br />Adventure holidays – more active with more risk, off the beaten track, in more unusual destinations <br />Ageing population – increasing percentage of old people (aged 65 and over)<br />Aid – money, goods and expertise given by one country to another, either free or at low cost<br />Birth rate – number of live births per 1000 population per year<br />Brownfield site – area of previously built-up land that is available to be built on again <br />Central Business District (CBD) – urban zone located in the centre, mainly shops and offices<br />Commuter – person who travels to work in another place every day by car or public transport<br />Conflict – opposing views about issues, leading to debate between people about them<br />Death rate – number of deaths per 1000 population per year<br />De-industrialisation – declining importance of manufacturing industry <br />Dependency ratio – relationship between people of working and non-working ages<br />Ecotourism – involves protecting the environment and the way of life of local people<br />Effects – primary (first effects) and secondary (later effects), positive (good) and negative (bad)<br />External factor – something unrelated to tourism, which affects tourist numbers, such as the economy, currency exchange rates, political unrest, wars and terrorism<br />Fair trade – farmers and producers in developing countries are given a fair deal by buyers in developed countries; prices paid are always higher than their costs of production<br />Function (of a settlement) – what it does, why it is there, e.g. capital city, port, industrial centre <br />Functional parts (of a settlement) – purpose of that area, e.g. residential, industrial, port area <br />Gross National Income (GNI) per head – total income of the country, divided by the number of inhabitants, to give average income per person <br />Gross National Product (GNP) – total value of all the goods and services produced by people and companies in the country in one year<br /> <br />Immigration – movement of people into a country from another country <br />Infant mortality rate – number of child deaths under one year old per 1000 people <br />Informal sector – not regular paid employment; unofficial work, often self-help small-scale services such as street sellers and shoe shiners<br />Infrastructure for tourism – support structures and services for visitors such as airports, hotels, electricity, tour agencies <br />Inner city – urban zone around the edges of the CBD, quite old <br />Land uses (urban) – ways in which the Earth’s surface is used, e.g. houses, factories, shops, transport, parks in towns and cities <br />Life expectancy – average number of years that a new-born child can expect to live<br />Management of problems – making changes for improvement, planning ahead to stop them occurring in the future<br />Management strategies – ways to control development and change, to preserve and conserve, and to plan for a sustainable future <br />Mass tourism – large numbers of visitors, often on package holidays with accommodation and travel included <br />Migration – movement of people either into or out of an area<br />Multicultural – when people from different ethnic, racial or religious backgrounds live together <br />Multiplier effect – spin-offs from one business growing, allowing other businesses to grow as well<br />National Park – area set aside to protect landscape and habitats, managed to stop visitor damage <br />Natural decrease – death rate higher than birth rate, declining population<br />Natural hazard – short-term event that is a danger to life and property, caused by natural events; examples are earthquakes, volcanoes and tropical storms <br />Natural increase – birth rate higher than death rate, growing population<br />Population policy – national plan for population change (either to lower or increase birth rates)<br />Population structure – the make-up (age and sex) of a population, usually shown in a population pyramid<br />Pull and push factors – circumstances that attract or drive people to migrate <br />Quality of life – how well a person is able to enjoy living; high quality is living comfortably (without always being wealthy) and low quality is struggling to survive<br />Refugee – person forced to flee from their country or place of residence <br />Resource – something useful for human needs<br />Responses – actions immediately after the event or in the long-term<br />Rural depopulation – decline in numbers living in country areas, often due to out-migration<br />Rural–urban fringe – area of countryside lying on the edge of the main built-up area, sometimes partly built on<br />Second home – house (often in rural areas) that is not the owner’s main place of residence<br />Segregation (in urban areas) – high concentration of land uses and/or groups of people in certain areas of the city, separate from other uses/people <br />Squatter settlement – homes on land not owned by the people living there, built illegally <br />Stewardship – entrusted to look after and manage places and areas<br />Suburbanised village – small settlement in the countryside that has grown with new housing and now is less like the old rural settlement it used to be<br />Sustainable city – city with low use of energy and raw materials, replacement by renewables and waste recycling <br />Sustainable development – growth of activities working with the environment for a long future<br />Sustainable living – people working with the environment for a long future for their economic activities <br />Sustainable management – planning ahead and controlling development for a long future <br />Transnational corporations (TNCs) – large businesses with interests in many countries <br />Urban sprawl – outward spread of towns and cities into and taking over rural areas<br />Urbanisation – increase in the percentage of people living in urban areas<br />Changing Urban Environments Flash Cards.<br /> <br /> UrbanisationIncreasing population living in citiesCity growth fastest in developing worldHigh rates of rural–urban migrationHigh birth rates, growing populations Urban zonesAreas with similar functions and land usesCBD (Central Business District) in centreInner city: old industry and housingSuburbs: mainly residential housing CBDOldest part, historical core, cathedrals etc.Main function: commercial, not residentialLarge shops, skyscraper officesPlace of work, focus of roads, railways Changes in UK CBDsIndoor or covered shopping centresPedestrianised high streets for shoppersNew transport systems e.g. tramsOld offices converted to luxury apartments Inner cities in UKDecaying old housing, industry, docksTerraced housing; ethnic communitiesDerelict land (railway sidings) and propertyHigh-rise flats built in 1960s Changes in UK inner citiesDockland redevelopment (e.g. London)Gentrification: homes for the wealthyCity Challenge: new homes for local peopleCommunity projects (Hulme in Manchester) Traffic in UK citiesMajor problem; city centre congestionSolutions: by-passes, ring roadsCongestion charge (e.g. London)Park & Ride; improved public transport Squatter settlementsInformal self-built housing / poor shacksBuilt illegally on waste / unused landWithout services (water, electricity, roads)Some in old city, most on the city edges Squatter settlements: improvementsAided Self-Help (ASH) community schemesGiving slum dwellers legal land titlesLinking them up to essential public servicesProviding building materials, loans, help Big cities: environmental problemsWaste disposal and lack of sanitationWater pollution, some from toxic wastesAir pollution, smog from traffic, industriesResulting health risks: bronchitis, asthma11 Managing environmental problemsExtend the network of water, sewage pipesEnforce air pollution regulations / controlsBuild underground railway systemsSpeed up the self-help housing schemes12 Sustainable urban livingConserve the old, historic parts of citiesProvide more open spaces and greeneryReuse, recycle and reduce wasteProvide efficient public transport systems<br />Population Issues Flash Cards <br /> <br /> Birth rates (BRs)Live births per 1000 people per yearHighest in poor developing countriesLowest in developed countries of EuropeFactors: economic, social, political Death rates (DRs)Deaths per 1000 people per yearSimilar in both developed and developingLow due to improvements in healthcareHigh in some African countries: HIV/Aids Natural increase (NI) and decrease (ND)NI: BR higher than DR, in most countriesFastest in Africa – many BRs are very highND: DR higher than BR, a few countriesMainly in Europe – some BRs very low Demographic Transition Model (DTM)Stage 2: BR high, DR falling, NI largeStage 3: BR falling, DR low, NI decreasingStage 4: BR low, DR low, NI smallStage 5: BR low, DR rising, ND exists Population policiesNational Plans to change birth ratesIn developing countries, to reduce BRsBy family planning programmes, educationIn developed countries, to increase them China's 'one child' policyStrictly, 'one couple – one child'Free family planning, late marriagesEnforcement: fines, lost privilegesIncentives: financial help, better housing Population structureAge–sex make-up of a population0–5 years: young dependants16–60: working population, independent65 and above: old dependants Ageing populationsIncreasing percentage of old people (65+)Longer life expectancies, living longerEconomic cost to country for pensions, careTheir needs paid for by taxes from workers Population pyramidsThey show population structureDeveloping countries: pyramid shapeWide base, narrow top, low heightDeveloped: narrower base, taller, straighter Migration: push and pull factorsWhat drives / attracts people to movePush: driven out by natural disastersHuman problems, no work, povertyPull: city attractions, more varied jobs11 Migration: impacts on source regionsNegative: families broken up, workers lostYoung, most skilled, best workers leavePositive: remittances (money) sent homeSpent locally improving houses, services12 Migration: impact on receiving countriesNegative: strain on resources, servicesIncrease in racial tension, discriminationPositive: bring new skills, take any jobKnowledge transfer, economic development<br />Tourism Flash Cards <br /> <br /> Growth of tourist industryOne of world's great growth industriesMore than 900 million tourists a yearMain reason for growth is greater wealthAlso more leisure time, better infrastructure Different environments for tourismCities: historical remains, culture, sportMountains: scenery, lakes, winter skiingCoastal: beaches, sea, water sportsUnique: Venice canals; Antarctica penguins Tourist areas in the UKTraditional: coastal seaside resortsMost on warm south coast of EnglandNow: National Parks good scenery Historic cities such as London and York Life cycle model of a resortSlow growth while infrastructure is builtRapid growth as popularity increasesGrowth slows; other places more attractiveDecline; search for new attractions Need for management of tourist areasConservation of landscapes, habitatsPreservation of historic buildingsControl of new buildings and developmentsProvide visitor access and facilities Mass tourismLarge numbers of visitors / big resortsExample: Mediterranean resorts in summerMany on package / organised toursEconomic gain and environmental loss Developing world: growth of tourismLong-haul jet aircraft make it possibleCaribbean: warm and sunny in winterEast Africa: big game safari holidaysFar East: cities, temples, tropical beaches Developing world: benefits of tourism Economy: foreign exchange earningsMany jobs in hotels, transport, as guidesTourists support local craft industriesBenefits from infrastructure improvementsDeveloping world: costs of tourismEconomic: tourist numbers go up and downSocial: traditions and cultures destroyedEnvironmental: landscapes damagedAlso litter, water and air pollution10 Extreme environmentsPlaces with difficult physical conditionsWildernesses: few people living thereOff the beaten track: adventurous touristsExample: polar lands Arctic and Antarctica EcotourismTourism that is environmentally soundNatural environments / wildlife safeguardedConsiders and involves local communitiesSustainable: no damage for the future Example of ecotourism Rainforest lodges in EcuadorMain attraction: forest plants and wildlifeIndians work as guides and in the lodgeForest preserved for the tourist income<br />