Geography gcse mock and examination preparation booklet


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Geography gcse mock and examination preparation booklet

  1. 1. Geography GCSE Mock and Examination Preparation booklet.<br />Name:<br />Students should bring the following to the Examinations:<br /><ul><li>Black Ball Point Pen
  2. 2. Pencil
  3. 3. Rubber
  4. 4. Ruler
  5. 5. Calculator
  6. 6. Colouring Pencils.
  7. 7. Year 10 Mock Examination.
  8. 8. Areas that will be examined. – These will be the same as for the real examination in the summer – but clearly different questions!
  9. 9. Section A – ONE QUESTION
  10. 10. The Restless Earth.
  11. 11. The distribution of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.
  12. 12. The reasons for earthquakes and volcanoes at the 3 plate margins
  13. 13. Diagrams of each plate margin
  14. 14. How Earthquakes are measured.
  15. 15. General Map skills – 4 and 6 figure grid references.
  16. 16. Causes and responses to a Tsunami.
  17. 17. Tsunami Case Study – Remember rule of Thumb – convincing facts specific to the PLACE studied.
  18. 18. Section B – TWO QUESTIONS
  19. 19. Water on the Land (Rivers)
  20. 20. You will find the Rivers Fieldwork booklet a useful tool to revision as it not only prepares you for the fieldwork day but also acts as useful revision.
  21. 21. Cross sections along a Long Profile of a River.
  22. 22. Formation of a waterfall – diagrams.
  23. 23. Flood hydrographs – their features and what they tell us.
  24. 24. Water Supply in the UK.
  25. 25. Coastal Zone.
  26. 26. Mass Movement
  27. 27. Features of coastal landforms.
  28. 28. Formation of Arches, Stacks and Stumps.
  29. 29. Formation of sea cliffs.
  30. 30. Sea Level Rises
  31. 31. Impact of coastal flooding.
  32. 32. Hard and Soft engineering. </li></ul>Glossary<br />Abrasion – waves erode coastline by throwing pebbles against cliff faces<br />Arch – rocky opening through a headland formed by wave erosion<br />Bar – ridge of sand or shingle across the entrance to a bay or river mouth<br />Beach – sloping area of sand and shingle between the high and low water marks<br />Cave – hollow at the bottom of a cliff eroded by waves<br />Cliff – steep rock outcrop along a coast<br />Constructive wave – gently breaking wave with a strong swash and weak backwash<br />Cross profiles of river valleys – V-shaped sections, changing downstream from steep to gentle<br />Destructive wave – powerful wave with a weak swash and strong backwash<br />Discharge – amount of water in a river at any one time<br />Earthquake – shaking of the ground<br />Effects – primary (first effects) and secondary (later effects), positive (good) and negative (bad)<br />Erosion processes – wearing away the land surface by hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition and solution<br />Flood plain – flat land built of silt on the sides of a river, usually in its lower course<br />Flooding – water covering land that is normally dry after a river bursts its banks<br />Fold mountains – long, high mountain range formed by upfolding of sediments<br />Gorge – steep narrow valley, with rocky sides<br />Hard engineering strategies – strong construction methods to hold floodwater back or keep it out<br />Hazard – natural hazards are short-term events that threaten lives and property<br />Hydraulic power – erosion of rocks by the force of moving water in waves <br />Levée – raised bank along the sides of a river, made of silt from river floods<br />Long profile of a river – a summary of the shape and gradient of a river bed from source to mouth<br />Managed retreat – abandon defence of present coastline in a controlled manner<br />Management of problems – making changes for improvement, planning ahead to stop them occurring in the future<br />Management strategies – ways to control development and change, to preserve and conserve, and to plan for a sustainable future <br />Meander – bend in a river, usually along its middle or lower course<br />Natural hazard – short-term event that is a danger to life and property, caused by natural events; examples are earthquakes, volcanoes and tropical storms <br />Ox-bow lake – semi-circular lake on the flood plain of a river, a cut-off meander<br />Plates – large rock areas that make up the Earth’s crust<br />Precipitation – all moisture that reaches the Earth’s surface from the atmosphere<br />Renewable energy – natural source of power that will never run out<br />Resource – something useful for human needs<br />Responses – actions immediately after the event or in the long-term<br />Soft engineering strategies – more natural ways to reduce the impact of flooding on humans, with less intervention and more preparation<br />Soil erosion – loss of fertile topsoil by action of wind and water<br />Spit – ridge of sand or shingle attached to the land, but ending in open sea <br />Stack – pillar of rock surrounded by sea, separated from the coastline<br />Sustainable management – planning ahead and controlling development for a long future <br />Tectonic activity – movement of the large rock plates of the Earth’s crust<br />Transportation processes – movement of sediment by traction, saltation, suspension and solution <br />Tsunami – giant sea wave travelling at high speed<br />Volcano – cone-shaped mountain formed by surface eruptions of magma from inside the Earth<br />Wave-cut platform – gently sloping surface of rock, in front of cliffs, exposed at low tide <br />Weathering – breakdown of rock in the place where it outcrops (in situ) <br />The Restless Earth – Flash Cards.<br /> <br /> Plate MarginsPlate margins are the action zonesDestructive (plates move together)Constructive (plates move apart)Conservative (plates slide past each other) VolcanoesShield volcanoes at constructive marginsWide cone with gentle slopes, lava onlyComposite cones at destructive marginsTall, steep, lava and ash, violent eruptions Effects of volcanic eruptionsNegative during eruptionsPeople killed, farmland destroyedPositive after eruptionsFertile soils, tourism, geothermal power Responses to volcanic eruptionsImmediate – during the eruptionPeople moved out of danger zoneLong-term – recovery and developmentSome and unusable development, forced migration SupervolcanoesErupt massive volumes of materialAt least 1000 times more than normalGlobal effects: dust cooling world climateLast eruption: Toba 75 000 years ago EarthquakesMost at destructive or conservative marginsFocus: underground where quake occursEpicentre: point above focus on surfaceRichter Scale measures their strength Effects of earthquakesPrimary effects – immediate effectsBuildings collapse, people killed / injuredSecondary effects – later effectsFires, landslides, disease, tsunamis Immediate responses to earthquakesEmergency / relief aid neededSpecialist rescue and medical teamsBlankets and tents for sleeping outdoorsSupplies of clean water and medicines Long-term responses to earthquakesPreparation for the next earthquakeHold earthquake drillsTrain emergency and rescue teamsBuildings that are earthquake-proof Predicting volcanoes and earthquakesVolcanoes can be monitored Detect movement / higher temperaturesKnown zones with high earthquake riskBut earthquake prediction is impossible Fold mountainsFormed at destructive plate marginsSediments in sea bed compressedFolded up into long, high mountain rangesRecent, some still rising e.g. Himalayas Human uses in the AlpsTraditional: farming and forestryMore recent: tourism, winter skiingSummer mountain scenery and lakesIndustry: HEP for sawmills, metal smelters<br />Water on the Land - Revision flash cards. <br /> <br /> Processes of river erosionHydraulic action: force of the waterAbrasion: sand, boulders erode channelAttrition: load breaking up smaller piecesSolution: some rocks dissolve in river water Processes of transportationTraction: boulders roll along river bedSaltation: small pebbles bounced alongSuspension: sand / silt carried in flowSolution: dissolved minerals carried away Valley long and cross profilesUpper course long profile: irregular, steep Lower course: lower, smoother, less steepUpper course cross profile: steep V shapeLower course: gentle V shape, flat Landforms of river erosionMainly found in upper courseWaterfalls, gorges, interlocking spursFormed by vertical erosionRiver cutting down towards sea level Formation of waterfall and gorgeAlternate outcrops of hard and soft rocksHard is eroded slowly, soft is eroded fastSoft rocks undercut by water splashbackWaterfall retreats upstream, leaving a gorge Landforms of river depositionMainly found in lower courseLevées, flood plains, deltasRiver carries a large load of sedimentDeposited where water flow slowed down Formation of meander and ox-bow lakeOutside bend: strong flow, erosion, cliffInside bend: weak flow, slip-off slopeMeander size increased by lateral erosionNarrow meander neck broken in a flood River dischargeVolume of water flowing in a riverFactors: the weather, rock type, reliefHigh discharge after heavy, prolonged rainParticularly impervious rock, steep slopes Causes of floodingPhysical: factors favouring high dischargeWet weather before; ground is saturatedSnow melts, cool weather, little evaporationHuman: deforestation, building construction Hard engineering strategiesStructures built to prevent floodingDams and reservoirsConcrete / stone channel sidesRaising the height of river banks11 Soft engineering strategiesMeasures to reduce the scale of floodingPlant trees on steep valley sidesZoning: stop more building on flood plainsIssue flood alerts; prepare e.g. sandbags12 Water supply in the UKWater surplus: north and west of UKHigh precipitation, lower population densityWater deficit: south and east EnglandLowest precipitation, highest population<br />The Coastal Zone – Revision Flash Cards<br /> <br /> Destructive and constructive wavesDestructive: high, large, breaking frequentlyStronger backwash down beach than swashConstructive: long, breaking gentlyStronger swash up beach than backwash Processes of coastal erosionHydraulic power: weight / force of waterAbrasion: pebbles flung against cliffsAttrition: rocks worn down into sandSolution: chemical action dissolving rocks Longshore driftMovement of sand and pebbles by wavesWaves may approach beach at an angleSediment rolls down beach at right anglesWaves move sediments further along coast Landforms of coastal erosionCliffs retreat leaving a wave-cut platformCaves widened to form archesArches collapse to form stacksHeadlands and bays; hard and soft rocks Formation of cliffsErosion at base forms a wave-cut notchOverhang formed; eventually it collapsesWaves remove the pile of rockErosion begins again; cliff retreats Formation of caves, arches, stacksJoint in cliff widened by waves into a caveCave made bigger; opened up into an archContinued erosion; more pressure on archArch collapses leaving a rock stack Landforms of coastal depositionBeach: sand / shingle sloping down to seaBetween the high and low water marksSpit: beach which ends in open seaBar: beach which goes across a bay Formation of beachesGrow in sheltered places e.g. baysConstructive waves favour depositionLongshore drift carries new sedimentOften deposited at bends in coastline High rates of coastal erosionDestructive waves during stormsAtlantic waves with a long fetchLoose / unconsolidated rocks (boulder clay)Soft rocks, with many lines of weakness Impacts of coastal erosionEconomic: lost homes, farms, caravansSocial: villages lost, people forced to movePolitical: governments / councils blamedEnvironmental: cliff retreat, sea invades11 Coastal protection: hard engineeringStructures built to keep the sea outSea walls in coastal townsGroynes to preserve beaches, increase sizeRock armour in front of cliffs and sea walls12 Managed retreat and soft engineeringDo nothing, let the sea invade lowlandCreate marsh, soaks up flood watersBeach nourishment; sand accumulationDune regeneration; protect sand dunes<br />