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Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
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Neuropsychology

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  • 1. Biological School It is all about the body!!!!
  • 2. The Nervous System It starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.
  • 3. Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)
  • 4. How does a Neuron fire?
    • Resting Potential : slightly negative charge.
    • Reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites.
    • Go into Action Potential .
    • All-or-none response .
    • Transfer of ions across axon’s membrane causes electrical charge.
  • 5. TYPES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS
  • 6. Acetylcholine (ACH)
    • Deals with motor movement and memory.
    • Too much and you will….
    • Too little and you will…
    • Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.
  • 7. Dopamine
    • Deals with motor movement and alertness.
    • Lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease.
    • Too much has been linked to schizophrenia.
  • 8. Serotonin
    • Involved in mood control.
    • Lack of serotonin has been linked to clinical depression.
  • 9. Endorphins
    • Involved in pain control.
    • Many of our most addictive drugs deal with endorphins.
  • 10. Drugs can be…..
    • Agonists - make neuron fire
    • Antagonists - stop neural firing
    • Reuptake Inhibitors- block reuptake
  • 11. Types of Neurons
    • Efferent (Motor) Neurons
    • Interneurons
    • Afferent (Sensory) Neurons
  • 12. The Nervous System
  • 13. Central Nervous System
    • The Brain and spinal cord
    • CNS
  • 14. Peripheral Nervous System
    • All nerves that are not encased in bone.
    • Everything but the brain and spinal cord.
    • Is divided into two categories…. somatic and autonomic .
  • 15. Somatic Nervous System
    • Controls voluntary muscle movement.
    • Uses motor (efferent) neurons.
  • 16. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Controls the automatic functions of the body.
    • Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic
  • 17. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Fight or Flight Response.
    • Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.
  • 18. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event.
    • Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up.
  • 19. Reflexes
    • Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain.
    • Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord.
    • Survival adaptation.
  • 20. The Brain
    • Made up of neurons and glial cells.
    • Glial cells support neural cells.
    My wife is my glial cell. She takes care of me!!!
  • 21. Ways to study the Brain!!!
    • Accidents: Phineas Gage.
  • 22. Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change. Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.
  • 23. Less Invasive ways to study the Brain
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Functional MRI
  • 24. Brain Structures
    • Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts.
    • Hindbrain
    • Midbrain
    • Forebrain
  • 25. Medulla Oblongata
    • Heart rate
    • Breathing
    • Blood Pressure
  • 26. Pons
    • Connects hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain together.
    • Involved in facial expressions.
  • 27. Cerebellum
    • Located in the back of our head- means little brain.
    • Coordinates muscle movements.
    • Like tracking a target.
  • 28. Midbrain
    • Coordinates simple movements with sensory information.
    • Contains the reticular formation : arousal and ability to focus attention.
  • 29. Thalamus
    • In Forebrain
    • Receives sensory information and sends them to appropriate areas of forebrain.
    • Like a switchboard.
    • Everything but smell.
  • 30. Limbic System
    • EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain.
    • Made up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala and Hippocampus.
  • 31. Hypothalamus
    • Pea sized in brain, but plays a not so pea sized role.
    • Body temperature
    • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Sexual Arousal (libido)
    • Endocrine System
    • Lateral – Sympathetic NS; + heart rate, + BP
    • Medial – Para-sympathetic NS; - heart rate, + peripheral BP
  • 32. Hippocampus and Amygdala
    • Hippocampus is involved in memory processing.
    • Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions.
  • 33. Cerebral Cortex
    • Top layer of our brain.
    • Contains wrinkles called fissures.
    • The fissures increase surface area of our brain.
    • Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza.
  • 34. Hemispheres
    • Divided into a left and right hemisphere.
    • Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa.
    • Brain Lateralization.
    • Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks.
    • Righties are better at logic.
  • 35. Split-Brain Patients
    • Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex.
    • When removed you have a split-brain patient.
  • 36. Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
    • Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal).
    • Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas .
  • 37. Frontal Lobe
    • Deals with planning, maintaining emotional control and abstract thought.
    • Contains Broca’s Area.
    • Broca’s Aphasia.
    • Contains Motor Cortex.
  • 38. Parietal Lobes
    • Located at the top of our head.
    • Contains the somato-sensory cortex.
    • Rest are association areas.
  • 39. Temporal Lobes
    • Process sound sensed by ears.
    • Not lateralized.
    • Contains Wernicke’s area.
    • Wernicke’s Aphasia.
  • 40. Occipital Lobes
    • In the back of our head.
    • Handles visual input from eyes.
    • Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa.
  • 41. Brain Plasticity
    • The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged.
    • The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.
  • 42. Endocrine System
    • System of glands that secrete hormones.
    • Controlled by the hypothalamus.
    • Ovaries and Testes.
    • Adrenal Gland
  • 43. Genetics
    • Every human cell contains 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
    • Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid- DNA.
    • Made up of Genes.
    • Made up of nucleotides.
  • 44. Twins
    • Best way to really study genetics because they come from the same zygote.
    • Bouchard Study
    • .69 Correlational coefficient for IQ tests of identical twins raised apart.
    • .88 raised together.
  • 45. Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • Gender comes from 23 rd pair of chromosomes…men have XY…woman have XX.
    • Turner’s syndrome is single X.
    • Klinefelter’s syndrome is extra X…XXY
    • Down syndrome….extra chromosome on 21 st pair.

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