Motivation and emotion
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Motivation and emotion

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Motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion Presentation Transcript

  • Motivation and Emotion
  •  
  • Motivation
    • Instinct Theory : we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors.
    • But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors.
    Click on the fish to watch it’s instinctual behavior.
  • Drive Reduction Theory
    • Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS .
    • Wants to maintain homeostasis.
    • When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive.
    • Primary versus Secondary drives
  • Arousal Theory
    • We are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal.
    • Yerkes-Dodson Law
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal.
    • We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first.
  • Motivation of HUNGER
  • Biological Basis of Hunger
    • Hunger does NOT come from our stomach.
    • It comes from our…
    • Brain
    • What part of the brain?
    • The Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamus
    • Lateral Hypothalamus
    • When stimulated it makes you hungry.
    • When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again.
    • Ventromedial Hypothalamus
    • When stimulated you feel full.
    • When lesioned you will never feel full again.
  • Set Point Theory
    • The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat.
    • Wants to maintain a stable weight.
    • Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight.
    • Leptin theory
  • Body Chemistry
    • Glucose
    • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.
    • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
  • Psychological Aspects of Hunger
    • Internals versus Externals
    • The Garcia Effect
  • Culture and Hunger
  • Criadillas- bull testicles . Mice Wine Dog Fried Frog Legs
  • Eating Disorders
    • Bulimia Nervosa
    • Characterized by binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of the food).
  • Anorexia Nervosa
    • Starve themselves to below 85% of their normal body weight.
    • See themselves as fat.
    • Vast majority are woman.
    Click on the woman to watch a case study of an anorexic.
  • Obesity
    • Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues.
    • Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity.
    Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
  • Sexual Motivation
    • Sex is natural.
    • Without sex, none of us would be here.
    • How do scientists (or you) find out about sex?
    • YOU ASK!!!!!!
  • Kinsey’s Studies
    • Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s).
    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
    • Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual.
    Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.
  • Masters and Johnson Study
    • In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex.
    • 382 females and 312 males.
    After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight. Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of their research.
  • Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle
    • Initial Excitement
    • Plateau Phase
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution Phase (with refractory period).
  • Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation
    • Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex.
    • Heiman 4 tape study.
    • People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.
  • We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage, brothers and cities
  • How is Sexual Orientation Determined
    • There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined.
    • Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents.
    • This it is likely biologically determined.
  • The Brain
    • Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.
  • Prenatal Environment
    • Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment .
    • We have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!!
  • Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)
    • Intrinsic Motivators
    • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
    • Extrinsic Motivators
    • Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..)
    • Work great in the short run.
  • Management Theory Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators.
    • Theory X
    • Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment.
    • Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated.
    • Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs.
    • Theory Y
    • Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive.
    • Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.
  • When Motives Conflict
    • approach-approach conflict
    • avoidance-avoidance conflict
    • approach-avoidance conflict
    • Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts
  • Emotion
    • Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion .
    • We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
    • The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.
    • Stimulus  Arousal  Emotion
  • Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    • Say James-Lange theory is full of crap.
    • How can that be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.
    • The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously.
    • Stimulus  Arousal/Emotion
    • They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
  • Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
    • Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.
    • They happen at the same time but…
    • People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.
    • Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
    • Stimulus  Arousal+Cognitive Label  Emotion
  • Stress
    • Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
    • Life Changing Units (LCUs)- marriage, change job, etc…
    • The more LCUs you have the higher your score is on the SRRS.
    • Those who score higher are more likely to have stress related disease.
  • Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Describes our response to a stressful event.
    • Three stages
    • Alarm
    • Resistance
    • Exhaustion