Motivation and emotion
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Motivation and emotion






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    Motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation and Emotion
    • Motivation
      • Instinct Theory : we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors.
      • But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors.
      Click on the fish to watch it’s instinctual behavior.
    • Drive Reduction Theory
      • Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS .
      • Wants to maintain homeostasis.
      • When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive.
      • Primary versus Secondary drives
    • Arousal Theory
      • We are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal.
      • Yerkes-Dodson Law
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
      • Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal.
      • We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first.
    • Motivation of HUNGER
    • Biological Basis of Hunger
      • Hunger does NOT come from our stomach.
      • It comes from our…
      • Brain
      • What part of the brain?
      • The Hypothalamus
    • Hypothalamus
      • Lateral Hypothalamus
      • When stimulated it makes you hungry.
      • When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again.
      • Ventromedial Hypothalamus
      • When stimulated you feel full.
      • When lesioned you will never feel full again.
    • Set Point Theory
      • The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat.
      • Wants to maintain a stable weight.
      • Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight.
      • Leptin theory
    • Body Chemistry
      • Glucose
      • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.
      • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
    • Psychological Aspects of Hunger
      • Internals versus Externals
      • The Garcia Effect
    • Culture and Hunger
    • Criadillas- bull testicles . Mice Wine Dog Fried Frog Legs
    • Eating Disorders
      • Bulimia Nervosa
      • Characterized by binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of the food).
    • Anorexia Nervosa
      • Starve themselves to below 85% of their normal body weight.
      • See themselves as fat.
      • Vast majority are woman.
      Click on the woman to watch a case study of an anorexic.
    • Obesity
      • Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues.
      • Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity.
      Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
    • Sexual Motivation
      • Sex is natural.
      • Without sex, none of us would be here.
      • How do scientists (or you) find out about sex?
      • YOU ASK!!!!!!
    • Kinsey’s Studies
      • Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s).
      • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
      • Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual.
      Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.
    • Masters and Johnson Study
      • In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex.
      • 382 females and 312 males.
      After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight. Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of their research.
    • Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle
      • Initial Excitement
      • Plateau Phase
      • Orgasm
      • Resolution Phase (with refractory period).
    • Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation
      • Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex.
      • Heiman 4 tape study.
      • People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.
    • We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage, brothers and cities
    • How is Sexual Orientation Determined
      • There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined.
      • Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents.
      • This it is likely biologically determined.
    • The Brain
      • Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.
    • Prenatal Environment
      • Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment .
      • We have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!!
    • Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)
      • Intrinsic Motivators
      • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
      • Extrinsic Motivators
      • Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..)
      • Work great in the short run.
    • Management Theory Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators.
      • Theory X
      • Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment.
      • Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated.
      • Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs.
      • Theory Y
      • Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive.
      • Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.
    • When Motives Conflict
      • approach-approach conflict
      • avoidance-avoidance conflict
      • approach-avoidance conflict
      • Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts
    • Emotion
      • Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion .
      • We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
      • The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.
      • Stimulus  Arousal  Emotion
    • Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
      • Say James-Lange theory is full of crap.
      • How can that be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.
      • The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously.
      • Stimulus  Arousal/Emotion
      • They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
    • Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
      • Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.
      • They happen at the same time but…
      • People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.
      • Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
      • Stimulus  Arousal+Cognitive Label  Emotion
    • Stress
      • Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
      • Life Changing Units (LCUs)- marriage, change job, etc…
      • The more LCUs you have the higher your score is on the SRRS.
      • Those who score higher are more likely to have stress related disease.
    • Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome
      • Describes our response to a stressful event.
      • Three stages
      • Alarm
      • Resistance
      • Exhaustion