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  1. 1. Characteristics and definition of urban environments  By population size, density of housing or number of dwellings (different countries have different minimum sizes).  By employment (large % of working population in manufacturing or office activities).  By facilities or functions (usually have high level of services- piped water, sewerage, medical and retail facilities).  By government legislation. How and why do they develop? Main Reasons  Migration from rural to urban areas  Natural population increase (is greater in urban areas)  Urban areas have better access to medical and other services (greater life expectancy-attractive). Urbanisation Process by which more and more people live in towns and cities Suburbanisation Movement of people, offices, factories, shops away from centre into suburbs. Counterurbanisation This is the movement of people away from cities and towns to villages and small towns in the countryside. Reurbanisation Movement of people back into the central area of a city after it has had a period of decline. City centre redevelopment is usually a catalyst for this process. City Natural Increase Increasing population. accounts for approx. 60% of rise (high birth rate, low death rate) Rural- Urban Migration Rapid migration accounts for approx. 40% of rise in urban population Push Factors 1. Lack of job opportunities. 2. Lack of investment by government. 3. Monotony and harshness of countryside life. 4. Increase in commercialism and mechanisation of agriculture lessens demand for labour. 5. Problems of crop failure. 6. Insufficient land reforms and over population cause lack of suitable land. Pull Factors 1. Better health care. 2. Greater educational opportunities. 3. Better provided services. 4. Perception of excitement, pace and bright lights of city life. 5. Move public and private investment = greater job opportunities. 6. Higher wages/greater job availability in cities cumulative success of relatives.
  2. 2. Application to the UK 1. Primary agricultural/craft economy (pre 1750’s/late 18th century) 2. Urbanisation with economic development alongside the Industrial Revolution (Early 19th century/1750’s-1850’s) 3. a) Rapid urbanisation with industrial growth, migration from rural to urban areas (19th century) b) Suburbanisation: suburbs grow faster than the central areas, the city grows outwards (1920’s onwards) 4. The suburbs continue to attract people but inner city population declines. Development of peripheral industrial estates and retail areas (1950’s-1970’s) 1. Very slow growth, most employed in agriculture 2. Increase in rate of unbanisation associated with economic development 3. Rapid rise in urbanisation 4. Urbanisation slows considerably; majority of people live in towns and cities employed in industry and services. 5. Counterurbanisation occurs and the urban proportions stablises or decreases as some prefer to commute 6. Reurbanisation associated with urban renewal Cycle of Urbanisation
  3. 3. 5. People move to adjacent rural areas or to smaller towns further away (1970’s onwards) 6. Some movement back to the centre due to gentrification, redevelopment and/or the creation of job opportunities in the central area (late 1980’s onwards). Urbanisation in MEDCs  Linked to industrial revolution. As factories were built in town centre, terraced houses were built to house workers. Services were then developed which attracted even more factories. Related problems Quick and cheap houses. Overcrowding in houses Poor water supply and sanitation resulting in diseases.  Suburbanisation: Also linked to development of suburbs. Centres became busy, noisy, polluted places. People moved to live on edge of the city assisted by the development of transport systems. Resulted in towns and cities spreading outwards.  Counterurbanisation: people leaving the city to live in the countryside.  Re-urbanisation: as cities redeveloped their inner cities to attract companies and people back to the city centre. Urbanisation in LEDCs Why the rapid growth?  Modernisation of agriculture More machinery and chemicals used reducing need for labour.  Rapid population growth From natural increase and pressure to leave countryside as local resources can not support the population.  Decline of traditional industries Due to cheap imported goods from MEDCs, workers have to look for new jobs in the cities  Attraction of better housing Related problems Housing issues: production of basic housing (favelas) Employment issues: not enough jobs in manufacturing industries. Pollution: waste disposal problems in some areas. Transport: hard to keep up with the spread of the city= leads to increase in pollution.