Mind the gap: bridging gaps between mlearning theory and practice
Mobile learning: Mind the Gapnarrowing the gap between theory, and practice Geoﬀ Stead Head of Innova/on, Tribal Cambridge, UK @geoﬀstead triballabs.net m-‐learning.org moblearn.blogspot.com
Who we are? Mostly UK-based mobile learning team, supporting learning by building mobile tools, apps and content for over 10 years! Active contributors to many academic research projects, as well as running m-learning systems (and content) for commercial clients (incl. McDonalds & US Government) Enthusiastic champions for how new technologies can be agents for change, encouraging fresh thinking in how we teach, and learn Our primary focus is: § "out of school" learning; workplace CPD; learning at the moment of need; hard to reach or hard to teach; better tools for educators. § Using smartphones to significantly improve the effectiveness of learning. Engaging in the “black box” area between the technology, and the educators We are: @geoffstead, Jo C, Jess W, Ben S, Chris W, Gustavo H, Jon B, Mahdi B, Gustavo P, Sean B, Si C, Jacks H & K, Bal K, Cindy Cwww.m-learning.org www.triballabs.net moblearn.blogspot.com www.mole-project.net
Mobile Learning Theory“ There is no way to summarise mobile learning comprehensively across the world. … If we are looking for one unifying theory, there isn’t one ” Prof. John Traxler, 2012
Theory: 1 of 5 Laurillard (2002)Conversational frameworkModelling the interactionbetween the learner, thetechnology, and theknowledge itself
Theory: 2 of 5 Sharples Taylor Vavoula (2005,9,10)Framework building on Vygotsky (1978) and Engeström (1996)Activity TheoryImportance of MOBILITYRe-interpreted for differentscenarios
Theory: 3 of 5 Park (2011)Pedagogical framework for m-learningIntroduces the concept of “distance learning”, and different levels of social interaction
Theory: 4 of 5 Performance support (Gottfredson)The Five Moments of NeedAcquisition of knowledge (traditional learning / training)1. Learning for the first time2. When wanting to learn moreApplication of knowledge (performance support)3. When trying to apply / remember Small, context aware nuggets of information4. When things goes wrong Perfectly suited to5. When things change mobile
Theory: 5 of 5 Koole (2010) FRAME model Makes the inter-dependence of different aspects of the experience much clear ship e inte r-relation ,Clearly shows th devices, apps ople, between pe peers doma in area,
More M-friendly ideas Ebbinghaus The Forgetting Curve (and power of repetition) Micro-repetitions are perfectly suited to mobile
More M-friendly ideas Clarke Quinn (2010) The Four C’s of mobile learning (different types of learner actions) § Content – the delivery of media including documents, audio, and video § Compute – the ability to perform calculations and have programmatic responses § Capture – capturing data from the local environment such as photos, videos, audio, or information from sensors such as location or direction § Communicate – the ability to reach others with text, voice, or even video
But how should I use this?Which devices? BYOD?Which approach should I use for teaching X?How to design mlearning content?Does it really work?Which software / app / system?
Geoff’s “ride-it” theory:planning for mobile learning Mobile is rushing up at us whether we are fully prepared or not Our role is to make sure it gets used for good We can’t control (or rationalise) everything, but we can prepare and practice
Start small. Practice. Keep improving Learning design: We never get it right first time. UX changes. Devices change. To compensate we do a very learner-centric design process, with lots of iterations, and collecting feedback 3 key forces impacting on the design: Subject area; Technology; Learner (& context) Implementation: When a new technology is introduced, there is a natural evolution: TRANSLATE TRANSFORM same methods, new methods, new tools new tools Allow for this during the project lifecycle
Flexible tools and equipment Learning design: § Lots of small, discrete nuggets § Separate content from “how to use it” § Plan for multiple ways to access / engage § content + tools + collaboration Implementation: § Don’t try to make the device “everything”. Activities and learning should transcend the technology § Try a wide ranges of learning modes.
Resilience / Coping with the unexpected Learning design: § Use open standards and frameworks to separate the technical layers § Wherever possible, keep content and tools platform independent!! Content: html, epub, mp3, mp4, js, css etc Tools: dropbox, evernote, kindle, … Implementation: § Avoid decisions that lock you into one device / platform / system § Do you support BYOD? § “crowd source” help from the learners themselves § Focus your energy on enabling, not containing
The “art” is in combining theseM-Learning Content “ Compelling m-learning is not just about the content. Or the technology. It is also about good pedagogy, good usability, and an app that you want to use ” Most work based m-learning happens in stolen moments, which is why a smooth blend between learning, performance- support and productivity-tools is so key
My “take aways” from the theory1 Use mobile to DO STUFF2 Let the learners help3 All about context (learner centred)4 Allow space to iterate (plan for agile)5 One size does not fit all 6. Forget what you think the technology can do - what do you want to do? 7.?
At Work: moments of need“It should just work” ... and it is personal!
Maths and English qualifications at McDonald’s UK Building skills in your own time (and place) Movie link: http://bit.ly/mcdvidss
On the job - blending “task” and “learning” Practical RnD, building and testing M-learning in challenging contexts Open standards for content 24 Nations currently trialing MoLE project http://mole-project.net Movie link: http://bit.ly/moleprojectmovieGrant # N62909-11-1-7025 issued by Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG) , funded by Coalition Warfare Program (CWP) & Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)
JKO MobileGovernment commitment to HTML5Multiple content teams workingtogether to figure out what worksbest on mobileGuidelines and tech tips available forall (#mlearning)
Standards make it easier to share, and prepare for future devicesPlan ahead. Use open standards and frameworks to separate the technicallayers § Learning content: HTML5 + JS / css etc media files device agnostic § Packaging models: W3C Widgets, SCORM, zip § Communication between layers: TinCan, SCORM, LETSI, REST § Data formats: JSON, XML, W3C etc § Content repositories: Fedora Commons, Wikimedia, Cloud, App Stores, etc ...