Introduction to Knowledge Management


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Introduction to Knowledge Management

  1. 1. Introduction to Knowledge Management Getting a taste for the product…
  2. 2. SO… Exploiting knowledge is NOT a technology issue… If you spend more than one third of your budget on technology then it’s a technology project... Knowledge implies a knower; the rest is information...
  3. 3. We need to avoid KM Mumbo-Jumbo…for example... "We need to use a knowledge ecology paradigm to synergistically decouple the informatic elements in the emerging strange attractors in your company's marketplace by deconstructing the knowledge worker and empowering them to become an adaptive learner in a virtual workplace within a chaotic and non-deterministic universe of data derived economic value."
  4. 4. Information Management 1. Policies, guidelines, authoritative sources 2. Policies for physical data stores 3. Improved information access Knowledge Management 4. Intellectual assets linked to strategic direction 5. Knowledge management culture 6. Identify experts 7. Capture tacit knowledge and insight 8. Collaborative environment and culture 9. Extend KM to partners and customers
  5. 5. The Changing Organisational Environment 20th Century  Functional departments in single locations  9 to 5, Monday to Friday working  Hierarchical management structures with fixed roles  Emphasis on intra- organisational working  Organisationally structured training and development 21st Century  Geographically distributed individuals with remote and mobile working  24/7 society  Flatter management structures, matrix management, multi-tasking and project team based  Greater emphasis on partnership and alliances  Personally tailored training and development
  6. 6. What is an Organisation? “And if you really think deeply about it, you discover that every organisation and every institution, without exception, has no reality save in your mind. It’s not in buildings. Those are manifestations of it. It’s not its name, it’s not its logo, and it’s not some fictional piece of paper called a stock certificate. It’s not money. It is a mental concept around which people and resources gather in pursuit of common purpose”. Dee Hock: Founder & Former CEO of Visa International
  7. 7. Managing knowledge… is not a new problem!!! “An immense and ever-increasing wealth of knowledge is scattered about the world today; knowledge that would probably suffice to solve all the mighty difficulties of our age, but it is dispersed and unorganised. We need a sort of mental clearing house for the mind: a depot where knowledge and ideas are received, sorted, summarised, digested, clarified and compared.” H.G. Wells: The Brain: Organisation of the Modern World: 1940
  8. 8. Here is the Third Wave view! “It’s not about an encyclopaedia that captures everything that anybody ever knew. Rather, it’s about keeping track of those who know the recipe and nurturing the culture and the technology that will get them talking.” Ward, Adrian: Workers Frontier International
  9. 9. Differentiating between Data, Information & Knowledge  Data is facts, pictures or numbers presented without a context  Information is organised data presented in context  Knowledge is information in context together with an understanding of how to use it
  10. 10. Defining Knowledge & Knowledge Management: The KPMG Model  Knowledge: The information contained within the organisation about customers, products and services which is contained within people’s minds or filed in analogue or digital format.  Knowledge Management: A systematic attempt to use knowledge within an organisation to improve overall performance.  Are these definitions valid?
  11. 11. Explicit & Tacit Knowledge Data Knowledge Information 1, 2, 1, 4 Name # # # # # Smith, J. 1 2 1 4 0 XXXXXX X X X X 0 XXXXXX X X X X 0 KNOW HOW SKILLS EXPERIENCE TRAINING EDUCATION ETC Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit The Knowledge in Knowledge Management -
  12. 12. Davenport & Prusak’s 33% KM Rule  Resource management  Organisational culture  Information technology  What about the missing 1%? INNOVATION INNOVERSITY
  13. 13. How should organisations approach KM? Questions an organisation must ask itself...  How should an organisation new to KM get started?  How do you create a culture favourable to KM?  How do you measure and reward progress?  How do you manage knowledge content systematically?  How do you create a KM architecture which encourages the flow of knowledge?  What level of human resources do you need to invest in KM?  How do you sustain impetus in KM?
  14. 14. Knowledge Management: Critical Success Factors • Leadership • Trust • Collaboration • Information & Communication Technologies • Human Resource Management • Organisational Culture
  15. 15. Semiology The theory of signs and symbols “What is important in a text is not what it means but what it does and incites to do. What it does: the charge or affect it contains and transmits. What it incites to do: the metamorphoses of this potential energy into other things.” Jean-Francois Lyotard
  16. 16. The Signification Process SIGN SIGNIFIED SIGNIFIER DENOTATION CONNOTATION Blackboard Virtual Space Issue-based On-line Discussion Content Creating a Symbol DiscussionDialogue Discourse
  17. 17. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ICT MANAGEMENT PROCESS Knowledge Information SkillsPeople possible required User Training Hardware Strategy Systems Management User Training Software Strategy Systems Development User Support Business Objectives Critical Success Factors Knowledge Needs Core Process Knowledge Strategy determinedetermine generate generate define TheSKIModelTheSKIModel
  18. 18. THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BURGER Strategic Management Meeting core business objectives ICT Management Users define technologies rather than technology defining the user Knowledge Management Learning to trust people’s ‘know-how’ Beer & Burgers? It’s for Everyone Organisational Culture as “Snakes & Ladders”
  19. 19. In conclusion... KM is NOT a definitive theory OR a universal paradigm... It offers a way of developing and understanding:- community; meaning; learning and identity which improves:- knowledge creation, sharing, storage and transfer within an organisation
  20. 20. It started as a... It may have started as a fad but it is attempting to become rigorous, however, it may be nonsense:- The Nonsense of Knowledge Management
  21. 21. Essential Reading Brooking, Annie F. (1999) Corporate Memory: Strategies for Knowledge Management London: Thomson Collison, C. & Parcell, G. (2001) Learning to Fly: Practical Lessons from One of the World's Leading Knowledge Companies Oxford: Capstone Davenport, Thomas H.& Prusak, Laurence (1998) Working Knowledge: How Organisations Manage What They Know Harvard: Business School Press Wenger, E. et al (2002) Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School
  22. 22.   Communities of Practice, Networks & Technologies: The Dynamics of Knowledge Flows within Community-based Organisations in North East England.