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Introduction to Knowledge Management
Exploiting knowledge is NOT a
If you spend more than one
third of your budget on
technology then it’s a
Knowledge implies a knower;
the rest is information...
We need to avoid KM
"We need to use a knowledge ecology paradigm to
synergistically decouple the informatic elements in the
emerging strange attractors in your company's marketplace
by deconstructing the knowledge worker and empowering
them to become an adaptive learner in a virtual workplace
within a chaotic and non-deterministic universe of data
derived economic value."
1. Policies, guidelines,
2. Policies for physical data stores
3. Improved information access
4. Intellectual assets linked to strategic direction
5. Knowledge management culture
6. Identify experts
7. Capture tacit knowledge and insight
8. Collaborative environment and culture
9. Extend KM to partners and customers
The Changing Organisational Environment
Functional departments in
9 to 5, Monday to Friday
structures with fixed roles
Emphasis on intra-
training and development
individuals with remote and
and project team based
Greater emphasis on
partnership and alliances
Personally tailored training
What is an Organisation?
“And if you really think deeply about it, you discover
that every organisation and every institution, without
exception, has no reality save in your mind. It’s not
in buildings. Those are manifestations of it. It’s not
its name, it’s not its logo, and it’s not some fictional
piece of paper called a stock certificate. It’s not
money. It is a mental concept around which people
and resources gather in pursuit of common
Dee Hock: Founder & Former CEO of Visa International
is not a new problem!!!
“An immense and ever-increasing wealth of knowledge
is scattered about the world today; knowledge that
would probably suffice to solve all the mighty difficulties
of our age, but it is dispersed and unorganised. We
need a sort of mental clearing house for the mind: a
depot where knowledge and ideas are received, sorted,
summarised, digested, clarified and compared.”
The Brain: Organisation of the Modern World: 1940
Here is the Third Wave view!
“It’s not about an encyclopaedia that
captures everything that anybody ever
knew. Rather, it’s about keeping track of
those who know the recipe and nurturing
the culture and the technology that will get
Workers Frontier International
Data is facts, pictures or numbers
presented without a context
Information is organised data presented
Knowledge is information in context
together with an understanding of how to
Defining Knowledge & Knowledge
Management: The KPMG Model
Knowledge: The information contained
within the organisation about customers,
products and services which is contained
within people’s minds or filed in analogue or
Knowledge Management: A systematic
attempt to use knowledge within an
organisation to improve overall performance.
Are these definitions valid?
Explicit & Tacit Knowledge
1, 2, 1, 4
Name # # # # #
Smith, J. 1 2 1 4 0
XXXXXX X X X X 0
XXXXXX X X X X 0
The Knowledge in Knowledge Management - http://home.att.net/~nickols/Knowledge_in_KM.htm
Davenport & Prusak’s
33% KM Rule
What about the missing 1%?
How should organisations approach KM?
Questions an organisation must ask
How should an organisation new to KM get started?
How do you create a culture favourable to KM?
How do you measure and reward progress?
How do you manage knowledge content
How do you create a KM architecture which
encourages the flow of knowledge?
What level of human resources do you need to invest
How do you sustain impetus in KM?
Critical Success Factors
• Information & Communication
• Human Resource Management
• Organisational Culture
The theory of signs and symbols
“What is important in a text is not what it
means but what it does and incites to do. What
it does: the charge or affect it contains and
transmits. What it incites to do: the
metamorphoses of this potential energy into
The Signification Process
Creating a Symbol
THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BURGER
defining the user
Learning to trust people’s
It’s for Everyone
Organisational Culture as
“Snakes & Ladders”
KM is NOT a definitive theory OR a
It offers a way of developing and
community; meaning; learning and identity
knowledge creation, sharing, storage and
transfer within an organisation
It started as a...
It may have started as a fad
but it is attempting to become
rigorous, however, it may be nonsense:-
The Nonsense of Knowledge Management
Brooking, Annie F. (1999) Corporate Memory: Strategies for
Knowledge Management London: Thomson
Collison, C. & Parcell, G. (2001) Learning to Fly: Practical
Lessons from One of the World's Leading Knowledge
Companies Oxford: Capstone
Davenport, Thomas H.& Prusak, Laurence (1998) Working
Knowledge: How Organisations Manage What They Know
Harvard: Business School Press
Wenger, E. et al (2002) Cultivating Communities of Practice: A
Guide to Managing Knowledge Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business
Communities of Practice, Networks & Technologies: The Dynamics of Knowledge
Flows within Community-based Organisations in North East England.