Community andCommunity and
the groupthe group
OEEDU 6002 Expeditioning – Week 5
Large human movements spring from
individual human initiatives. If you feel that you
cannot have much of an effect, the ne...
3
Community
• Have you experienced real community?
• Palmer suggests that most experiences of
community are actually only ...
4
Parker Palmer on real C.
• The concept of community has been distorted - most references
to community are more realistic...
5
Is community that
important?
• Rousseau (1991) - we all experience an
ontological loneliness
• This brings discomfort, l...
6
The “true” meaning of
community (according to Peck 1990)
• Concept of community is used far too loosely
• Community is l...
7
1. Inclusivity
• Most groups are exclusive cliques that work
hard to keep people out.
• It is much easier to exclude rat...
8
2. Commitment
• Must be a willingness to co-exist - and make
it work
• Requires an appreciation of differences.
9
3. Consensus
• Community avoids the use of voting to
resolve differences - as in a democracy
• Consensus values individu...
10
4. Realism
• Diversity and difference are more likely to
produce realistic solutions to problems
• The multiple points ...
11
5. Contemplation
• Community is self examining, self-critical, self
aware
• Contemplation is the key to insight
• You d...
12
6. A safe place
• Acceptance and freedom to be yourself is a
critical part of community
• Community is healing - even t...
13
A group of leaders
• Total decentralisation of authority
• Not leaderless - leader-full
• Flow of leadership
16
Community concepts
• Community is essentially about being a part of a group
where:
- people can be themselves with fear...
17
Community in OE
• How realistic is it to expect us to
experience/promote community in our OE
program?
• What are the co...
18
Community on
Expo...
• Are you prepared/committed to work that hard to reach
this “state of group functioning” ?
• Forg...
19
Models of group
development
• The most well known is Tuckman and
Jensen’s (1977) model of:
- Forming
- Storming
- Normi...
20
Peck’s stages of
community
• Peck’s stages of Community
- Pseudocommunity
- Chaos
- Emptiness
- Community
• Essentially...
21
Pseudocommunity
• People may pretend to be vulnerable - but it is all
unreal
• There is no such thing as instant commun...
22
Chaos
• Usually well intentioned but misguided attempts to heal or
convert …. “everything would be much better if only ...
23
Emptiness
• Not an attractive solution to chaos
• People empty themselves of barriers to communication - feelings,
assu...
24
Community
• Soft quietness descends
• Where to from here depends on task? - may be to
simply experience C and benefit f...
25
Fight gracefully
• there are no sides, factions - cliques have
been dropped
• Community is a place where conflict can b...
26
Group member behaviours
• According to Trotzer (1989) there are five categories
of group member behaviour …
- Resisting...
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Expeditioning - Community and the group

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When planning for a 13 day bushwalk, how will the group of walkers work together? What makes a community?

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Expeditioning - Community and the group

  1. 1. Community andCommunity and the groupthe group OEEDU 6002 Expeditioning – Week 5
  2. 2. Large human movements spring from individual human initiatives. If you feel that you cannot have much of an effect, the next person may also become discouraged and a great opportunity will have been lost. On the other hand, each of us can inspire others simply by working to develop our own altruistic motivation His Holiness the Dalai Lama “
  3. 3. 3 Community • Have you experienced real community? • Palmer suggests that most experiences of community are actually only pseudo- community?
  4. 4. 4 Parker Palmer on real C. • The concept of community has been distorted - most references to community are more realistically - Pseudocommunity – where people hate conflicts • By contrast real community is only reached through hard work … at a great cost. • To be connected – you have to look at your heart – otherwise you will not be able to respond to criticism – you will always be defending. The heart needs to be a place of peace. (need to know what you believe and be OK with that - worldviews ?) • Real community involves: taking social risks, being vulnerable, being able to forgive, soft individualism, working from a position of weakness, taking responsibility for our own actions.
  5. 5. 5 Is community that important? • Rousseau (1991) - we all experience an ontological loneliness • This brings discomfort, loneliness, anguish. • Our distinctively human way of overcoming solitude is to “enter into unity with, share the existence of, other beings through knowing and loving them” (p35) • What are the consequences of non- community? 5
  6. 6. 6 The “true” meaning of community (according to Peck 1990) • Concept of community is used far too loosely • Community is like a gem - multi-faceted, inherently mysterious, miraculous, unfathomable
  7. 7. 7 1. Inclusivity • Most groups are exclusive cliques that work hard to keep people out. • It is much easier to exclude rather than include. • Communities seek to be inclusive • Inclusivity extends the groups
  8. 8. 8 2. Commitment • Must be a willingness to co-exist - and make it work • Requires an appreciation of differences.
  9. 9. 9 3. Consensus • Community avoids the use of voting to resolve differences - as in a democracy • Consensus values individual difference - which is not congruent with “majority rules”. • Consensus is when all agree that they have come to the best decision for the group at that time, given all the circumstances.
  10. 10. 10 4. Realism • Diversity and difference are more likely to produce realistic solutions to problems • The multiple points of view and freedom of expression usually gives a better understanding of the situation • Humility is a key ingredient because you begin to appreciate other people’s gifts and recognise your own limitations
  11. 11. 11 5. Contemplation • Community is self examining, self-critical, self aware • Contemplation is the key to insight • You don’t reach community and sit back and relax
  12. 12. 12 6. A safe place • Acceptance and freedom to be yourself is a critical part of community • Community is healing - even though that is not the focus of community - more a by product
  13. 13. 13 A group of leaders • Total decentralisation of authority • Not leaderless - leader-full • Flow of leadership
  14. 14. 16 Community concepts • Community is essentially about being a part of a group where: - people can be themselves with fear of being judged or condemned by others - People are committed to work together and although conflicts occur they are resolved without big dramas. - Forgiveness runs freely. - People’s strengths are respected and utilised for the good of the group. People’s weaknesses are shared, understood, and accepted. - You feel safe to try (and possibly fail) new things. - People are welcome to participate in the group - it is not just a little club for people who feel the same way. 16
  15. 15. 17 Community in OE • How realistic is it to expect us to experience/promote community in our OE program? • What are the constraints to establishing true community - what makes it hard for OE? • Should community even be something that we strive for in OE programs?
  16. 16. 18 Community on Expo... • Are you prepared/committed to work that hard to reach this “state of group functioning” ? • Forgive people when they hurt you? Current and/or past? • Accept people with quite different views of the world to you? • Accept and value people who annoy you and get on your nerves? • Be prepared to really let your walls down? • Not just bite your tongue to avoid conflicts? • Speak up in the group?
  17. 17. 19 Models of group development • The most well known is Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) model of: - Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing - Mourning/adjourning
  18. 18. 20 Peck’s stages of community • Peck’s stages of Community - Pseudocommunity - Chaos - Emptiness - Community • Essentially a sequential model.
  19. 19. 21 Pseudocommunity • People may pretend to be vulnerable - but it is all unreal • There is no such thing as instant community • Conflict avoidance is the key feature of this stage • Minimisation, lack of acknowledgment, or ignoring of individual differences. • Key is not to offend, annoy or irritate anyone - and when people make you feel that way: ignore it, pretend your not bothered, and change the subject (good hostess behaviour)
  20. 20. 22 Chaos • Usually well intentioned but misguided attempts to heal or convert …. “everything would be much better if only you were more like me!” • People resist change which gets the H&C working even harder. • Individual differences are no longer ignored, they are “out”, but the group attempts to obliterate them. • Unconstructive, noisy, uncreative … not a lot of fun. • Leader often gets a good serve too ! • Tempting to escape into “organisation” - it is a solution to the chaos problem but it will not lead to “true community”. • Fighting is far better than pretending you are not divided. It is painful …. But it is a beginning.
  21. 21. 23 Emptiness • Not an attractive solution to chaos • People empty themselves of barriers to communication - feelings, assumptions, ideas, motives - self protection mechanisms that we have been developing very successfully for years. • Expectations and Preconceptions • Prejudices (conscious and subconscious.) • Ideology • The need to heal, convert, fix, or solve (motive is often questionable) • Need to control • Once people start to empty themselves …. They become receptive to others and ….. They can enter the last stage ….
  22. 22. 24 Community • Soft quietness descends • Where to from here depends on task? - may be to simply experience C and benefit from the healing? • Always community building first - problem solving second • May slip back into chaos - need to work back through stages. • Emotions range from: joyful, loving, to sadness & grief • Energy level is almost supernatural (sometimes sexual?)- things going on in a spiritual level
  23. 23. 25 Fight gracefully • there are no sides, factions - cliques have been dropped • Community is a place where conflict can be resolved without bloodshed • Conflict resolution is a product more than a pre-requisite to community
  24. 24. 26 Group member behaviours • According to Trotzer (1989) there are five categories of group member behaviour … - Resisting behaviours - Manipulating behaviours - Helping behaviours - Emotional behaviours - Sub-grouping behaviours • Today’s message … - Before you respond/intervene .. Look beyond behaviour and try to understand possible cause or contributing factors behind behaviour.
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