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Made-in-China
“Eco-Blocks”
A Replicable Model for Sustainable Neighborhoods

A “Leap-frog” strategy away from reliance on ...
WHY
Carbon Neutral
Future

It is a carbon
problem




       ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-I...
WHY
Carbon Neutral
Future

Building
consumption
represents
almost half the
challenge




                                 ...
WHY
Carbon Neutral
Future

Buildings and
cars represent
65% of the
challenge




                                         ...
WHY
                                               The Impact of Coal
Carbon
Neutral Future

                             ...
WHY
                                                   Opportunity Wedges
Carbon Neutral
Future




       ©2007 by the Re...
WHY                                      OPTIONS:
Carbon Neutral                                     Supply Side
Future
  ...
2030 0Challenge
                               •         New building project, development and major
                     ...
The Eco Block


 Qingdao Sustainable Development
  Demonstration Project

                                                ...
At current growth rates, the built area of China will double within 25 years




       ©2007 by the Regents of the Univer...
China is efficient at building housing on a mass scale to meet this rate of
 growth – 11 million new ‘SuperBlock’ housing ...
There is a massive demand for new infrastructure




©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China ...
…and the natural environment has become significantly degraded




   ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California...
The need for sustainable development is recognized…

   quot;We will endeavor to develop a circular economy, lower energy ...
The mass-replicated SuperBlocks place significant
demands on China’s infrastructure




 potable water
                   ...
If SuperBlocks could be self-sufficient with respect to energy,
water, and waste, demand on China’s infrastructure and
nat...
EcoBlock Goals
•   Mass replicable
•   Economically viable
•   Resource self-sufficient – water, waste, energy
•   100% wa...
Qingdao City




©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA D...
Qingdao
Bus Rapid
Transit




                                                                                            ...
Qingdao EcoBlock: Site Location




    ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” ...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Program Details



EcoBlock

                                                                 ...
EcoBlock




                    whole systems thinking
©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-Chi...
Whole Systems
Thinking




  ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fr...
Energy Demand Reduction Strategies


                                                                                     ...
Creating a Sustainable Supply of Energy



                                                                               ...
Sustainable Energy Supply
                 53%                                                                            ...
Reducing Reliance on Grid Based Energy
                                                              Conservation and Effi...
EcoBlock Energy Demand Profile
                120



                100



                80
Thousands Kwh




        ...
Waste to Energy Anaerobic Digester
                                                                                       ...
Reducing Demand for Potable Water

Xeriscaping




              Low flow                                                 ...
Alternative Sources of Water Supply
Wastewater Treatment




Constructed wetlands                                         ...
Wastewater Recycling Systems




  ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harri...
Reducing Reliance on the Grid
                                      Conservation and
                                     ...
Treatment for Household Demand
                                                                                           ...
EcoBlock: Reduced Waste to Landfill



                                                                 green and organic ...
Sustainable
                                                                                                 Waste Managem...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities

                                                   Waste
                ...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities
                                               Blackwater and Tertiary Tre...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities
                                                Energy


                 ...
Landscapes–10 productive, frequently unrecognized,
dimensions in the figure/ground
1)   Climate-creates comfort/
     redu...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities
                                                Stormwater




           ...
Bio-swale




   ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA D...
©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of En...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities
                                                  Rainwater
              ...
Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities
                                                             Water Recycli...
©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of En...
©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of En...
transport

©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean Co...
Modal Share Comparisons

100%

        Car 10%

                                                                          ...
BRT Station
                                                   BRT Station                                                ...
Project Visualization




©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Frake...
The Bottom Line
    Delta between business-as-usual and EcoBlock

                                                        ...
Incremental Capital Costs by System




   ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-Block...
Costs and Financial Returns under Different Scenarios




     ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made...
Cost / Benefit
Eco Block Development Economic Model                                                                       ...
ECOBLOCK                                           QINGDAO ECO-SITE
                             Reduced number of people ...
12 SuperBlocks are built every day in China




©2007 by the Regents of the University of California   Made-In-China “Eco-...
If 25% of Superblocks built in the next year
were replaced with EcoBlocks, China could save:

                            ...
Qingdao can be the
model for sustainable
development
throughout
the world




   ©2007 by the Regents of the University of...
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Harrison Fraker- EcoBlocks

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Slideshow detailing Harrison Fraker's triple net zero (waste, water, and energy) EcoBlock concept.

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Transcript of "Harrison Fraker- EcoBlocks"

  1. 1. Made-in-China “Eco-Blocks” A Replicable Model for Sustainable Neighborhoods A “Leap-frog” strategy away from reliance on centralized infrastructure Energy, Climate and Global Security Resilient Pathways for a Non-Linear World Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory April 1, 2008 Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean and William W. Wurster Professor College of Environmental Design University of California, Berkeley part of the Urban Sustainability Project Berkeley Institute of the Environment ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  2. 2. WHY Carbon Neutral Future It is a carbon problem ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  3. 3. WHY Carbon Neutral Future Building consumption represents almost half the challenge Source: Energy Information Administration Statistics (Architecture 2030) ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  4. 4. WHY Carbon Neutral Future Buildings and cars represent 65% of the challenge Source: Energy Information Administration Statistics (Architecture 2030) ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  5. 5. WHY The Impact of Coal Carbon Neutral Future 2012 ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  6. 6. WHY Opportunity Wedges Carbon Neutral Future ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  7. 7. WHY OPTIONS: Carbon Neutral Supply Side Future A. Add to the Grid with large scale renewables (wind farms, solar farms, geothermal, ocean and tidal) B. Sequester carbon (clean coal) C. Find new technologies to remove carbon from the atmosphere D. New biofuels for transportation Demand Side A. Reduce demand from central infrastructure through conservation and renewables equals: The 2030 0Challenge ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  8. 8. 2030 0Challenge • New building project, development and major renovation meet a fossil fuel energy-consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. • That at a minimum an equal amount of existing building area be renovated to use 50% of the fossil fuel energy they currently consume. • New Buildings-50% 2010 – 60% 2015 – 70% 2020 – 80% 2025 – 90% 2030 – Carbon Neutral (no fossil fuel energy to operate) ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  9. 9. The Eco Block Qingdao Sustainable Development Demonstration Project University of California Huahui Designs Berkeley ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  10. 10. At current growth rates, the built area of China will double within 25 years ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  11. 11. China is efficient at building housing on a mass scale to meet this rate of growth – 11 million new ‘SuperBlock’ housing units are built each year ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  12. 12. There is a massive demand for new infrastructure ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  13. 13. …and the natural environment has become significantly degraded ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  14. 14. The need for sustainable development is recognized… quot;We will endeavor to develop a circular economy, lower energy and resources consumption and build a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society and ensure sound balance between economic development, population, resources and environment.quot; Chinese President Hu Jintao, CEO summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Nov. 17 2006 ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  15. 15. The mass-replicated SuperBlocks place significant demands on China’s infrastructure potable water sewage landfill power plant SuperBlock ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  16. 16. If SuperBlocks could be self-sufficient with respect to energy, water, and waste, demand on China’s infrastructure and natural resources could be significantly reduced energy water waste EcoBlock ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  17. 17. EcoBlock Goals • Mass replicable • Economically viable • Resource self-sufficient – water, waste, energy • 100% wastewater recycled on site • 75%+ reduced potable water demand • 100% on-site renewable energy generation • Encourage journeys by foot, bicycle and transit • 40% to 60% site area to be green space ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  18. 18. Qingdao City ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  19. 19. Qingdao Bus Rapid Transit Site ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  20. 20. Qingdao EcoBlock: Site Location ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  21. 21. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Program Details EcoBlock 00 600 units per EcoBlock 12 0 Eco-block = 3.5 hectares 30 600 1,800 residents per 600 EcoBlock 171 units per hectare 600 600 Qingdao Prototype Site 600 EcoBlock replicated 8 times 600 5,100 units at the Qingdao site Increased density near transit ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  22. 22. EcoBlock whole systems thinking ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  23. 23. Whole Systems Thinking ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  24. 24. Energy Demand Reduction Strategies High Daylighting Building shading Energy Passive performance efficient solar heating Reflective glazing equipment pavement Efficient lighting Natural ventilation Shaded walkways ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  25. 25. Creating a Sustainable Supply of Energy Canopy integrated Roof mounted photovoltaics photovoltaics Building integrated wind turbines Digester ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  26. 26. Sustainable Energy Supply 53% 40% Wind Photovoltaics 455,000 494,000 kWh/yr Turbines kWh/yr On-site Renewable Energy 84% On-site Renewable Waste Energy 16% Primary Water Green Waste Household Tank - Sludge Organic Waste Anaerobic Digester 7% 80,500 kWh/yr ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  27. 27. Reducing Reliance on Grid Based Energy Conservation and Efficiency On-Site Generation per EcoBlock (Buildings Only) Net Annual Energy from Grid 100 1,600,000 1,400,000 kWh/year Optimized 80% facade 1,200,000 Photovoltaics Natural 1,000,000 60% ventilation 800,000 Passive heating Wind 40% 600,000 turbines Daylighting 400,000 20% Efficient equipment & Digester lighting 200,000 0 0% 100% residual energy demand met by on-site renewables Total demand + supply savings = 1,650,000 kWh/year ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  28. 28. EcoBlock Energy Demand Profile 120 100 80 Thousands Kwh Energy from battery storage Energy from Surplus energy 60 battery storage stored 40 Surplus energy stored 20 0 Midnight 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM 8 PM Time of Day Total Energy Used per Hour Total Energy Generated per Hour ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  29. 29. Waste to Energy Anaerobic Digester 31% efficient gas-fired Methane electricity out turbine Biogassification Hydrolysis reactor reactor Buffer Tank Household Organic Waste Waste Hydraulic mixed Energy to mixing with Water Green Waste buildings water drawn Water and off Sludge generated organic acid Hydraulic Water recycled to hydrolysis tank mixing Eco Block ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  30. 30. Reducing Demand for Potable Water Xeriscaping Low flow Low flow fixtures Recycled water equipment & fittings for irrigation ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  31. 31. Alternative Sources of Water Supply Wastewater Treatment Constructed wetlands On-site chlorination 15% of potable water Gray water treatment Reverse Osmosis living machine system and UV treatment supply from off-site Rainwater storage Rain gardens Swales Porous paving Rainwater Harvesting ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  32. 32. Wastewater Recycling Systems ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  33. 33. Reducing Reliance on the Grid Conservation and On-Site Treatment Efficiency Baseline Development 160 100% 140 80% 120 W ater Demand from G rid Water Efficient Fixtures (M illions of Liters) 100 60% Rainwater 80 Tertiary 40% 60 Treatment Advanced 40 Treatment 20% Advanced 20 Treatment to Potable Standards 0 0% 85% savings on potable water demand overall 98M liters/year by sustainable supply Total Demand + Supply Savings = 151M ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  34. 34. Treatment for Household Demand Advanced Treatment 25% Kitchen 100% 25% Shower Tertiary 25% Laundry 50% 50% 25% Toilet Household Gray Water Potable Water Water Usage Reverse Primary Constructed Osmosis & treatment Wetland UV Disinfection ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  35. 35. EcoBlock: Reduced Waste to Landfill green and organic waste recyclables All other waste Automated waste 339千克/天 management 339 kg/day system to Landfill 17% 550千克/天 550 kg/day to be Recycled 29% 1032千克/天 Waste to energy 1032 kg/day 54% ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  36. 36. Sustainable Waste Management Automated Waste System Underground automated waste management system Street waste collections linked to automated Anaerobic digester system Each residential Off-site unit linked direct recycling from to automated central point system ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  37. 37. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Waste Central waste collection point Digester ste Wa ic an Other waste Or g Recyclable em yst S e st Wa d te ma uto A ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  38. 38. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Blackwater and Tertiary Treatment Central Primary Treatment System for sludge and food waste removal from wastewater Digester Localized Reverse Osmosis treatment units at each Ecoblock All Wastewater, sludge and food waste Constructed wetlands Wastewater supply for Wetlands ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  39. 39. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Energy Digester On-site renewable energy distribution Battery storage of Distribution of renewable electricity from energy grid Transformer ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  40. 40. Landscapes–10 productive, frequently unrecognized, dimensions in the figure/ground 1) Climate-creates comfort/ reduces heat island 2) Air Quality-absorbs carbon, aromatic 3) Storm water-treatment swales 4) Waste water-treatment wetlands 5) Food-urban agriculture 6) Energy-creates biomas fuel 7) Aesthetics-design quality 8) Health-healing effect 9) Recreation-shared activity space 10) Community-perceived as common good, builds consensus ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  41. 41. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Stormwater Constructed wetlands Swales ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  42. 42. Bio-swale ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  43. 43. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  44. 44. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Rainwater Advanced Rainwater Treatment Primary Rainwater Treatment Potable Water Swales ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  45. 45. Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities Water Recycling Distribution Potable Water from Grid Centralized RO Potable Water Teritary Treated Water ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  46. 46. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  47. 47. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  48. 48. transport ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  49. 49. Modal Share Comparisons 100% Car 10% Car 25% Transit 10% 75% Car 50% ? Car 90% 50% Transit 50% Bicycle & Pedestrian Transit 20% 80% 25% Bicycle & Bicycle & Pedestrian Pedestrian Transit 3% 30% 80% Bicycle & 0% Pedestrian 7% China US EU Japan China Today Today Today Today 2030 ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  50. 50. BRT Station BRT Station 5 min. walk 10 min. walk Dedicated off-street paths Primary sidewalks Secondary sidewalks High-level of pedestrian accessibility and connectivity ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  51. 51. Project Visualization ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  52. 52. The Bottom Line Delta between business-as-usual and EcoBlock Capital Costs Annual Q&M Savings Energy $6,200,000 $380,000 Waste $1,000,000 $14,000 Water and $1,500,000 $15,000 wastewater treatment Savings: Parking (saved cars/unit) $31,000 $1,750,000 Total $6,950,000 $440,000 Sustainability initiatives are estimated to increase cost of development by 5%-10% With real estate premium, NPV after 20 years = $1.12 million ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  53. 53. Incremental Capital Costs by System ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  54. 54. Costs and Financial Returns under Different Scenarios ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  55. 55. Cost / Benefit Eco Block Development Economic Model Redistribution Model Primary: Land Secondary : Government Users Developer Builder • Reduced need on • Incremental • Incremental • Reduced fees infrastructure investment on ‘eco’ investment on ‘eco’ payable on utilities investment infrastructure for infrastructure for and services to district buildings Government Financial subsidy • Incremental management / Finance operation and pay operation cost back investment ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  56. 56. ECOBLOCK QINGDAO ECO-SITE Reduced number of people drinking polluted water 1,422 人 / people 12,087 人 / people Reduced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere 11,934 吨 / tons 1,404 吨 / tons Reduced volumes of waste to landfill or urban dumps 3,500 吨 / tons 415 吨 / tons Reduced volume of untreated sewage discharged to rivers 90 / million liters 765 / million liters ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  57. 57. 12 SuperBlocks are built every day in China ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  58. 58. If 25% of Superblocks built in the next year were replaced with EcoBlocks, China could save: 1 3 Drinking-water plants 1 1 wastewater treatment plants 0 9 coal fired power stations 0 8 Ledu County landfill $ 0 9 Billion ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  59. 59. Qingdao can be the model for sustainable development throughout the world ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “Eco-Blocks” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley

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