2. Large1. Leisure and detached 3. Very few 4. Mostentertainment houses with driveways expensive facilities garages houses 8. Grew in 5. Shops and 6. Semi- 7. Newest response to Offices detached increased car houses with ownership gardens 9. High-rise flats may now 10. Parks and 11. Lots of 12. Oldest replace some open spaces public transportrun-down areas links 13. Tall high 14. Cheapest 15. Land is 16. Terraced density housing cheaper housing buildings 18. Modern 17. Some out-of -town 19. High-value 20. Industry garages shopping land centres Categorise : 5 zones
Old Core Little/ No Residential Land has very high value - Historical buildingsMany National Chain stores Characteristics Government buildings of a CBD •Many have covered shopping centres Very Accessible Banks, building societies, Estate AgentsEntertainment - Traffic Restrictions
May have derelict Close to CBD for land: land pollution trade / commute issues Found near docks / rivers / coast / transport links Characteristics of Industrial ZoneSome areas beingredeveloped into Poorer qualitytrendy modern terraced housingapartment blocks nearby (for workers) Grew rapidly in Industrial Revolution
High density housing mixed with shops & Social Problems industry Terraced housing Often run down Crowded areas, little open space Characteristics ofHouses are small to the Inner City / factories providingmake cheaper to Twilight zone employmentbuy / rent No front or back gardens (just a small back yard) Land values are lower than the CBD but still Population density is very high high.
Transport links into Land is cheaper…so city you can buy a bigger house More land space available = bigger gardensFewer corner shops Characteristics of Inner Suburbs Houses are semi- House prices increase detached / large terraced, some have drives or garages Bigger gardens
Lots of driveways and garages Closer to countryside (rural-urban fringe) Land is cheap = big homesOut-of-townretail parks / Characteristicssupermarkets of Outer Suburbs Very few services (have to drive to a Houses are shop) expensive Large detached houses, big gardens
Questions1. Why are there so many tall buildings in the CBD? (2)2. Name 3 features all CBDs have in common? (3)3. Why do you think the gardens are so small in the inner city? (1)4. Why do you think driveways become more common in the suburbs? (2)5. What are the advantages of building retail centres / hypermarkets out of town in outer suburbs? (4)
LEDC land use modelThe most important difference =• In an LEDC the high cost residential is NEAREST the CBD whereas in an MEDC this is reverse. Because……• In an LEDC, favela / shanty towns are on the outer suburbs. Because…..
Services & settlements• Smaller settlements = fewer services (mostly low order goods)• Large settlements = more services (including high order, specialist goods)• These services affect the sphere of influence
Case studies• MEDC = Portsmouth, UK• LEDC = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Most likely to…..In which zone are you most likely to have the following happen?….Get your car stolen?….See a fox at night?….See a Porsche parked?….Have a school with good exam grades?….Have people complaining about noise from their neighbours?….See empty McDonalds wrappers on the floor?….Be able to buy milk at 10.30 at night?….Be able to catch a bus to visit friends anywhere?….See a police car with its blue lights flashing?….Hear horses neighing?
Brownfield or Greenfield – Which is best? Brownfield - A site that has been built on before and is ready for development. Normally associated with urban inner city areasGreenfield – A site that has not been built on before. Often rural/countryside areas. This includes the rural-urban fringe.
Land use change – multipurpose land use is more sustainable • How sustainable is developing a Brownfield site compared to a Greenfield site? – Quality of life? – Access to services & jobs? – Waste disposal and costs involved? – Energy savings? – Cost to environment?BBC CLIP BBC CLIP 2
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Brownfield and Greenfield Sites? Advantages of Brownfield Sites Advantages of Greenfield SitesDisadvantages of Brownfield Sites Disadvantages of Greenfield Sites
Sustainable citiesUrban problems and solutions
Recap: What problems doWhat is sustainability? cities have that are unsustainable? How do you think a city can be made more sustainable?
Problems of urban areas Possible sustainable solution• Overcrowding in the inner city• Crime (e.g. vandalism, gang crime, etc.)• Congestion• Noise & air pollution (from factories & cars)• Derelict land
Quality of Life Out of town shopping centres / supermarkets How has retail provision changed over time? E-tailing Clone townsMNCs Ethical shopping
Superstores / Retail Parks• Need a lot of space so locate out-of-town• Often built on greenfield sites• Tend to be near transport points, easy access• Often open late or 24/7 every day• Impacts on CBD : competition, lose business, traffic patterns change• Impacts on suburbs: congestion, noise + air pollution
E-tailing : online shopping• 20% of all retail is now done online• Most brands now available online, e.g. Virgin Megastore, Tesco, Topshop, etc. .• Advantages?• Disadvantages?
Clone towns?• A clone town is when a town has mostly the same multinational company chains of shops, cafes and restaurants as in other towns and cities• Key term: MNC(Multinational Company)
Settlement size vs Retail Provision• The bigger the settlement, the more services & retail provided (especially high order goods)• E.g. small village = local shop, low order goods• E.g. city = covered shopping centres, chain stores, high order goods, expensive brands, etc
Case study practise• Plan answers (mindmap?) for the case study questions 1-4 in your revision booklet
Where are you weakest?• Look back over your mock & the self-assess guide in the revision book• Where are you weakest?• Create mindmaps / notes on your weakest areas, e.g. MultiNational Companies (MNCs), e.g. Coca Cola Land use / land use change (Portsmouth / London Olympics) LEDC city (Rio de Janeiro) – favelaEtc.