• Anti-natalist: China, India, Bangladesh
• Pro-natalist: France, Germany, Japan
Case study: overpopulation & anti-natalist policy
• You choose: e.g. India, China, Bangladesh, Singapore, Kenya.
• Create a resource to suit your challenge.
Describe the population pattern in detail. Include key facts linking to development indicators.
Suggest and explain problems of overpopulation here.
Include a range of key geographic words.
Describe and explain the population policy used. Evaluate how successful this has been.
Compare to other country’s policies / effectiveness
Describe the population pattern for your country. Use some key facts and key
words, e.g. $GDP per capita, birth rate, natural increase, etc,.
Suggest and describe some problems of overpopulation here.
Describe the population management policy using words like ‘anti-natalist’. Evaluate
whether this policy has been effective and why.
Describe why your country is considered overpopulated, include some facts (e.g. birth
rate, natural increase, total population, etc,.)
Suggest the impact of this overpopulation on society, economy & environment.
Describe the population policy (anti-natalist = aims to reduce birth rate) and discuss
how successful the policy has been (use fact).
• Is used usually for declining or ageing
populations, e.g. France, Germany, Japan
• Create ANY revision resource to explain the
pro-natalist policy of France. Must link to key
fact – e.g. incentives & disincentives
Case study: pro-natalist policy in France
The policies that were put in place to encourage three-children families were:
• a cash incentive of £675 monthly (nearly the minimum wage) for a mother to stay off work for
one year following the birth of her third child
• the 'carte famille nombreuse' (large family card), giving large reductions on train fares
• income tax based on the more children the less tax to pay
• 3 years paid parental leave, which can be used by mothers or fathers
• government subsidised day-care for children under the age of three, and full time school places
for over threes paid for by the government
• This has resulted in mothers considering having children and remaining in work. The fertility
rate in France is one of Europe's highest.
Many areas of Europe have a low fertility rate because of the following reasons:
• education - people are more aware of the availability of contraception and consequences an
unplanned pregnancy can have on their career
• women in careers - Women may choose to follow their career choice rather than start a family
• later marriages – therefore have children later, therefore fewer children (average 1.6 children
• state benefits - couples no longer need children to help care for them when older, so have fewer
France was a country with concerns that professional women were choosing not to have children.
The government were worried that the population was not going to replace itself over time.
Pro-natalist policy in France
• 1939 introduced the ‘Code du la famille’ a pro-natalist legislation
• Originally banned contraceptives (until this was repealed in 1969 as
immoral / illegal)
• Cash incentives, e.g. pay up to £1068 for the third child
• Subsidised holidays / extra paid leave for larger families
• Maternity leave for first child is minimum 20weeks, rising to 40
weeks for third child
• 100% mortgages / extra credit available to families
• Full tax benefits for parents until child reaches 18
• Reduced public transport costs for 3 child families
• By 2007, the fertility rate had risen to 1.98 children per woman
(from 1.6 in 1968)
• BUT – problem in future that this ‘baby boom’ will lead to an ageing
Exam case study Q
“With reference to a case study
example, describe and explain how and why a
government may choose to adopt a population
management policy. Evaluate how successful
this strategy is.” [9marks] [3marks SPaG]
Christmas revision homework
• Check you know all Population key terms
• Revise case studies of population
• Revise migration: key terms, examples of
• Want to improve your depth of
understanding? Watch Hans :