Smoke and steam hang over the volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier on April 14. Volcanic ash drifting across the Atlantic forced the cancellation of flights in Britain and disrupted air traffic across northern Europe, stranding thousands of passengers. (Jon Gustafsson/AP)
Men near Myrdalssandur, Iceland, wrap a house vent and windows in plastic film on April 16 2010 to prevent the entry of airborne volcanic particles and ash. Winds pushed the ash plume south and east, across Britain, Scandinavia, and into the heart of Europe. (Brynjar Gauti/AP)
Ice chunks carried downstream by floodwaters caused by volcanic activity melting glaciers lie on the Markarfljot river bed on 16 April 2010, 75 miles east of Reykjavik city. (Brynjar Gauti/AP)
Footprints left in volcanic ash by scientists visiting the Eyiafjoll area to collect samples. (Omar Oskarsson/AFP)
NASA’s Terra satellite captured the ash plume venting from Eyjafjallojokull volcano passing over the North Atlantic towards Britain and Scandinavia on 15 April 2010. (MODIS Rapid Response Team/NASA)
Meteosat false colour image which shows the spread of ash and volcanic particles in dark red spreading from Iceland out across Europe. The ash is travelling at up to 35’000 feet, forcing the closure of European airspace. (HO/AFP/Getty images)
A man stares at where a road used to be. Waters from the melting Eyjafjallojokull glacier over the volcanic eruption caused flash floods and washed away the road. (Halldor Kolbiens/AFP)
Volcanic plume billows from the erupting Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland on 14 April. (AFP/Getty)
As smoke, ash, lava and volcanic projectiles continue to be erupted, the Eyjafjallajokull area sees an increase in tourism to the area. Some visitors to the volcano said it was like going to a festival, the roads were so busy. This comes at a time when Iceland is in economic depression and still in its traditionally quiet tourism period so many locals see this as a timely benefit. Icelandic and international visitors were making the trek, some called it a pilgrimage – something you simply must see in your lifetime. (Halldor Kolbeins/Getty)
Tourists gather to watch the Fimmvorduhals volcano near Eyjafjallajokull. (Halldor Kolbeins/Getty)
The March 2010 eruption at Ejyafjallajokull, set to the side of the glacier itself. (Halldor Kobeins/Getty)
The March 21 2010 eruption at Ejyafjallajokull forced 600 people to evacuate. (Fiur Kjartansson)
Sophisticated computer models from the metoffice predicted accululation of ash.
Finger pointing, change in regulations, computer models
Transcript of "Medc case study iceland"
MEDC tectonic case study Iceland volcanic eruption
The Iceland Volcano and MEDC tectonic hazard. <ul><li>Eyjafjallajokull ( how to say ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fissure eruption </li></ul><ul><li>15 th April 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Iceland and state of development </li></ul>
Describe the location of Eyjafjallajokull (3) Volcano location Iceland UK
Describe the distribution of earthquakes in Iceland <ul><li>Earthquake activity </li></ul>
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fimmvorduhals_second_fissure_2010_04_02.JPG Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on tectonic plates. These divergent plates are moving apart – they are called constructive plates. As the plates pull apart magma can rise to the surface + form volcanoes and hotspots. The latest eruption occurred under a glacier. The water cooled the lava quickly – led to massive gas, steam and glass particle clouds rising to 30000ft Tony Cassidy
Primary effects <ul><li>150m thick ice cap melted. </li></ul><ul><li>Major floods to Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed parts of main Route 1 road </li></ul><ul><li>Thick Ash cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory problems for animals </li></ul><ul><li>Ash damage to homes </li></ul><ul><li>20 farms destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>No loss of life – because Iceland prepared </li></ul>
Airspace closed across much of Europe since Thursday lunchtime. At least 17’000 flights a day were cancelled. Stock market shares in Air Travel and Tourism agencies have dropped 4%. The disruption is costing airlines more than $200 million a day. Grounded air cargo flights have stopped delivery of items such as microchips, food, flowers, medicines and mail. Increased use of Eurostar, train services ships and ferries Less demand for air fuel = 1.87million barrels of oil not needed = loss of money for oil industry = could lead to increase in petrol costs in UK Loss of some products (like fruit) to supermarket shelves Increased spending by people who are stranded in the UK – for hotels, food, etc. Health impacts – can cause respiratory problems as ash settles In Iceland – flash floods, damaged fields and homes, but increased tourism Could possibly trigger major eruption at Katla volcano
Secondary effects <ul><li>Volcano Refugees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 days of no flying and 95,000 flights cancelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coincided with Easter Holiday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of travellers stranded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost to airline industry estimated to be $2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>London residents enjoyed peace and quiet with no planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit and veg imports into UK stopped – impact on growers </li></ul></ul>
In Iceland <ul><li>20 farming families evacuated </li></ul><ul><li>Roads bulldozed to allow flash flood water to reach the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Fine ash silting up rivers – harbours closed and bridges in danger of being damaged – these rivers are still blocked 1 year on, government has to pay to dredge them or allow rivers to flood and create new path </li></ul>
UK <ul><li>London lost £102 million of tourist income </li></ul><ul><li>Knock-on implications for hotel owners, insurance companies, employers, etc. . </li></ul><ul><li>Some workers went unpaid – others had to claim on insurance. </li></ul>
Management of the hazard <ul><li>Iceland is an MEDC and very experienced with volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of high tech equipment and sophisticated computer models to monitor seismic activity and predict eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Warning system, e.g. text messages to all residents with 30min warning </li></ul><ul><li>Well prepared emergency services </li></ul>
Comparing LEDC and MEDC effects <ul><li>Compare the effects of the Haiti earthquake with those of the Iceland eruption. (SEE) [4marks] </li></ul><ul><li>Why were there very few deaths in Iceland? [2marks] </li></ul>
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