@priorygeography GCSE Geography Revision Exam: 18th June 2012 Key Geographical Themes topics: Theme 2 Population & Settlement (ignore Population!) Theme 3 Natural Hazards Theme 4 Economic Development Don’t forget to use www.facebook.com/classroomgeography www.geogdebens.wordpress.comREAD the question:Recognise - the pattern / feature / processExplain – use connectives (so, because, therefore, etc.)Analyse – give advantages and disadvantages, weigh upDescribe – use data from resources and own knowledge(SEE) For Case Studies / sustainability questions:Sustainable development is using resources today in a way that helps to protect them forthe future. Sustainability must balance:Social – families, communities, peopleEconomic – jobs and moneyEnvironmental – natural and built environment(PEE) For explain / case study questions:Point – state your opinion, answerEvidence – back up what you say with facts, detail, exampleExplain – give reasons for what your say
Exam command words Command word: What it means Compare Show similarities and differences. A balanced answer is required. Consider Describe and give your thoughts on the subject. Contrast Point out only the differences between two items. Define Explain the precise meaning of a concept / word. Describe Say what something is like, how it works, use adjectives. Discuss Explain an item or concept, give details about it using info / examples / facts. Give both points of view & come to a conclusion. Examine Investigate in detail, offer evidence for and against. Explain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle. Identify / State Express the relevant points briefly and clearly. Illustrate Provide examples to demonstrate or prove a subject. Justify Give reasons to support your answer / argument, and the main objectionsSummarise / Outline Provide a short summary of all the info on a subjectIt might be useful to underline command words in an exam question.Answering the questions…..[1mark] questions = can be answered with a single word or simple sentence, often usingdata or fact. E.g. Name a climatic hazard = drought [2mark] questions = either needs two simple sentences, often using data OR needs onepoint then explained. E.g. Explain why LEDCs have a higher death rate = poor healthcareand lack of food  OR LEDCs have a higher death rate due to a lack of medicine(point) and healthcare which means they cannot treat illnesses and disease so die moreeasily (explain) [4mark] questions = requires you to compare, consider evidence, use facts, refer toexamples. The answer should be detailed. You should probably describe and explain. P.E.E.
Theme 2 Settlement checklistNow I’ve reached the end of the Settlement unit: Yes Think so No I can explain the reasons for settlements locating in particular sites I can name a local settlement and give reasons what location advantages it has -Portsmouth I can explain the spheres of influence I can describe and explain the land use models for MEDC’s cities of Hoyt and Burgess I can give reasons for the patterns of land use in cities I can describe and draw a diagram to show the settlement hierarchy for my local area (Hamlet, village, town, city) I can describe the housing in Gunwharf and the positive and negative impacts of the redevelopment. I can name a sustainable settlement, identify its sustainable features and explain how it is sustainable. Greenwich Millennium VillageI can explain how land use is changing within cities using the example of Portsmouth - Gunwharf. I can explain why urbanization is happening in LEDC’s. I can give push and pull factors. I can explain the impacts of urbanization in LEDC cities I can explain the features of shanty towns and the advantages and disadvantages I can identify different methods to tackle transport issues in cities. I can explain what counter-urbanisation is, its causes and effects. I can identify and give reasons for the types of goods and retail services found in urban and rural settlementsI can explain the reasons for town centre decline & retail service change (include e-tailing, ethical shopping, out-of-town shopping)I can show how retail provision changes over time through my case study on Portsmouth. I can explain what these terms mean:Clone town Urbanization Counter- Urbanization shanty town push/ pull factor suburb Urban Sprawl Settlement Rural CBD Infrastructure convenience goods Retail change CBD inner city twilight zone suburbs e-tailing Theme 3 Natural Hazards checklist
Now I’ve reached the end of the natural hazard unit: Yes Think so No I can describe the global distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes and give reasons for this pattern of distribution. I can draw and label the structure of the earth. I can explain how this is important in explaining why earthquakes and volcanoes occur. I can draw the different plate boundaries and label the features of them. Constructive(divergent), destructive (convergent) and conservative (transform). I can explain what happens at each type of boundary: divergent, convergent and conservative/transform I can give examples of economic, environmental and social impacts of earthquakes and volcanoes. I can give examples of primary and secondary impacts of earthquakes I can name an earthquake in an LEDC and MEDC and describe the impacts and the responses. E.g. Haiti 2011, Japan 2011I can name a volcano in a MEDC and LEDC and describe the impacts and responses. E.g. Iceland 2011, Montserrat 1997I can explain how the impact of natural hazards can be reduced e.g. technology, building techniques, education, prediction, evacuation planning, aid etc I can describe and explain the global distribution of tropical cyclones and droughts. I can explain why tropical cyclones occur and in those areas I can give examples of economic, environmental and social impacts of tropical cyclones I can name a MEDC & LEDC case study of a tropical storm and its causes, impacts and responses e.g. Hurricane Katrina, USA 2005 & Cyclone Nargia, Burma 2008I can give reasons for the differences in impacts between LEDC and MEDCI can explain the physical (climatic) and human (overpopulation) causes of droughtsI can explain the social, economic and environmental impacts of droughtsI can name a MEDC & LEDC drought case study with causes, impacts and responses e.g. Australia La Nina 2011, the Sahel Ethiopia 1985-onwardI can explain why economic development can influence the severity of the impact of a hazardI can explain why people choose to continue to live in hazardous areas I can explain what these terms mean: Natural hazard Epicentre Eye Infrastructure Mantle Tectonic plate Mid Ocean Ridge Tsunami Levees Drought Storm surge Subduction zone Convergent Divergent Transform Overgrazing Overpopulation Desertification Theme 4 Economic Development checklist
Now I’ve reached the end of the EconomicDevelopment unit: Yes Think so No I can explain what is meant by ‘development’ and how development indicators are used to measure it I can suggest how development means more than just wealth and be able to explain quality of life I can describe and explain types of poverty and attempts to reduce poverty I can suggest what the ‘development gap’ / North-South divide is and why it exists I can suggest how development can be affected by aid, name different kinds of aid, and describe how sustainable they are I can describe & evaluate an aid project such as Water Aid, Goat Aid or Computer Aid – including how sustainable it is I understand what employment structure means & can explain primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary employment I can explain how & why employment patterns change over time – comparing LEDC, NIC and MEDC examples I understand the social, economic & environmental factors that influence where an industry locates and how this changes I can name, describe & explain the impacts of industries in LEDCs and MEDCs and NICs I have knowledge of my case studies (primary – Kaweh Ijen sulphur mining, secondary – South Korea manufacturing, tertiary – Portsmouth retail, quaternary – Cambridge science parks) I can describe and explain what a MNC is and the impacts of it (positive and negative) on the host country (e.g. Coca Cola, India) I can explain how MNCs and globalisation affect development I can describe and explain the effects of industries upon the environment I can explain what these terms mean: Development indicator Quality of life HDI sustainable development NIC Absolute poverty Relative poverty North-South divide Brandt line Bilateral aid Primary employment Secondary employment Tertiary employment Quaternary industry GDP per capita MNC Outsourcing Footloose industry Globalisation
GCSE Geography Case Study revision list Each examination question has a case study at the end worth 8 marks. You will need to apply relevant knowledge and understanding of real examples. Theme 2 SettlementCase Study About Need to knowBed Zed South London A case study of urban The social, economic and environmentalOr change to illustrate social, impacts of settlements.Greenwich Millennium Village economic andOr environmental planning and How settlements can be redeveloped inLondon Olympics – Stratford its sustainability. a sustainable way.redevelopmentPortsmouth CBD / inner city / Example of land use zones How land use changes throughout asuburbs in a city city; CBD, inner city, industrial, inner suburbs, outer suburbs A case study to illustrate That the provision of goods and retailPortsmouth / Gunwharf Quays how retail service services changes over time.retail provision changes over time. Why services change & how they impact. Theme 3 Natural HazardsCase Study About Need to know:Haiti earthquake 2010 One tectonic hazard event in an LEDC. Causes, effects (primary / secondary) & One tectonic hazardJapanese Earthquake 2011 response to the hazard. event in an MEDC.OrIceland volcano 2010Sahel drought One climatic hazard Be aware that the level of economic event in an LEDC. development influences the severity ofOr the impact of a hazard, i.e. LEDCs more likely to have greater death toll, MEDCsCyclone Nargis (Burma) likely to have more $ damagesHurricane Katrina One climatic hazard event in an MEDC. Methods of hazard protection,Or prediction & preparation.Australia drought (La Nina) Theme 4 Economic Development
Case Study About Need to knowWater Aid / Computer Aid / Goat Case study of an aid That some aid is more sustainable thanAid project in an LEDC others. Factors that affect There are physical and human factorsLEDC: sulphur mining (primary) the location of that influence the location of differentIndonesia, Kawah Ijen volcano industry in LEDCs and types of industry. MEDCsNIC: manufacturing (secondary) in Industry locations have to change overSouth Korea time (due to competition, lack of resources, environmental decline, lackMEDC: retail / services (tertiary) of workers, etc.)in Gunwharf Quays Portsmouth, UKAnd research & development(quaternary) Cambridge ScienceParksCoca Cola (secondary A case study of a The effects MNCs have in the areasmanufacturing), India MNC investment in a they choose to locate in and in other specific area in an places. international context. Positive & negative social, environmental and economic impacts of MNCs. Coca Cola, India (secondary) A case study of How industry and economic Or where conflicts development can have an impact on the exist between environment. Tourism in Thailand (tertiary) economic Or development and The impacts of industry. Aral Sea (water diverted for environmental irrigation – primary) damage How these conflicts are managed sustainably.Remember case study questions are Level marked i.e.:Level 1 (1-3 marks): basic description showing limited knowledge andunderstanding. Meaning not communicated very clearly.Level 2 (4-6 marks): Refers to named case study, some relevant knowledgedemonstrated and some facts/evidence are included to support answer.Meaning is communicated clearly.Level 3 (7-8 marks): Valid case study given and a full range of place-specific detail used to effectively answer the question. Good knowledge andunderstanding shown through facts / evidence. Meaning is communicatedvery clearly.You should try to write three well developed ideas in your answer! Case study questions preparation
Past paper exam questionsPopulation & settlement case study questions Place/Example Key ideas to include 1 For a settlement which has experienced land use change: (i) Name and locate the settlement, stating how it has changed; (ii) With reference to specific place detail, describe and explain the reasons for land use change and the impacts these had. 2 There is global pressure to make settlements more sustainable. For one of more examples that you have studied, describe and explain how settlements can be made more sustainable. 3 With reference to a named example, describe and explain how an urban area has been redeveloped. Discuss how sustainable the redevelopment has been. 4 Name and locate an example of changes in retail service provision in an area. Describe the recent changes which have taken place and explain why these changes have occurred.Economic development case study questions Place/Example Key ideas to include 5 For an aid programme that you have studied: (i) Name and locate the programme; (ii) Describe with specific detail the main features of the programme; (iii) How sustainable is the programme? 6 For a specific example of an economic activity that you have studied (for example a mining area, retail outlet, manufacturing company, etc); (i) Name and locate the economic activity; (ii) With reference to specific detail, describe and explain the factors affecting its location. 7 Name and locate an economic activity. How has the economic activity affected the natural environment? What has been done to minimise damage to the environment? 8 Name and locate an example of an economic activity you have studied in an LEDC. Explain why this economic activity is located in this LEDC. What factors might influence decisions about whether the named economic activity remains at this location in the future?
Name a multi-national company (MNC) you have 9 studied and a country where it is located. Explain how the multi-national company affects local people and environments and the overall economy of the country.Natural hazards case study questions Place/Example Key ideas to include10 For a natural hazard event that you have studied in an LEDC: (i) Name and locate the natural hazard event; (ii) With reference to specific place detail, describe the physical processes that caused the hazard and how human activities affected it. (iii) Explain how levels of development can affect the impact of a hazard.11 For a place with a natural hazard that you have studied: (i) State where the natural hazard is located; (ii) Describe the measures of hazard protection that have been undertaken in your chosen area; (iii) Using specific detail, explain how one of these measures of protection works.12 For a type of natural hazard that you have studied: (i) Name the natural hazard; (ii) With reference to specific examples, describe and explain its global distribution.13 Name a type of climatic hazard and the location where it took place. Explain the natural processes which caused this event and how human activities have affected the impact of the natural hazard.14 Identify a type of tectonic hazard. Describe methods used to respond to the hazard. How successful are these response methods?15 Name and locate an example of a tectonic hazard event in an LEDC. Describe the effects of the hazard event and explain how successful attempts have been to reduce the effects.