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Drought

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Drought Drought Presentation Transcript

  • Climatic hazards: Drought & Desertification
  • Starter:Watch the following video clip carefully and identify the issues associated with a lack of rainfall.What is the pattern of freshwater across the world? Why do some places enjoy a surplus while others suffer deficit?
  • World without water
    YouTube clip
  • Describe the pattern of the distribution of freshwater across the world.
  • What is a drought?
    A drought occurs when there is not enough rainfall to support people or crops
    There are various causes, human and natural
    Drought is hard to prevent & can cause crop failure, famine, death, fires & desertification
    It is a weather hazard that can develop slowly
  • Deaths as a consequence of drought
    Of all drought-related disasters from 1975-2000, 98% of deaths occur in just three countries:
    Ethiopia, Sudan & Mozambique
    1975-2000: +560’000 deaths worldwide from drought disasters
  • Causes of drought
    Natural / Physical causes:
    • Weather: increased amount of anticyclone weather (hot + dry) means air holds less moisture so you get less rain
    • Global warming: weather patterns change (e.g. Sahel is becoming hotter + drier)
    • Hotter weather = more evaporation than precipitation
    • El Nino: random weather event that reverses normal weather patterns (e.g. Australia has years of drought + then years of flood)
    Human causes:
    • Overpopulation: too many people living in an area using too much water
    • Overcultivation: planting too many crops which use up too much water
    • Overextraction: removing too much water from wells so they dry up
    • Deforestation: cutting down trees which otherwise store water + hold soil together
    • Politics: fighting over water, or companies being greedy + taking too much water to then sell on
  • Explore the news
    Barcelona drought news
    Australia drought
    Australia drought 2
  • Case Studies
    LEDC = Ethiopia (Sahel region) 1985-2006
    MEDC = Australia 2005-2008
  • Ethiopia drought
  • Ethiopia drought 2006
    Sahel region, drought conditions since 1985
    (Drought of 1984-1985 = 1million deaths)
    Causes = natural climatic causes (low precipitation), human causes (deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, overcultivation)
    GDP per capita $110, life expectancy 43yrs
    2006 = affected 2.7million people
    UNICEF donated $50million to water aid projects
    Consequences = famine, migration, disease, 46% of cattle died, debt
  • Australia drought
  • Australia drought
    2006
    Extremely low rainfall season (lowest rain since 1900) across southern Australia
    River Murray dried up in places
    Triggered by ‘El Nino’ weather event – causes excessively low rainfall
    Human causes = poor use of water resources
    Consequences: 6million sheep died in 2years, temporary migrations, improvements to water resource use, eventual floods!
  • Causes, effects, case studies, management?
    Use the textbook and the photocopies to explore the causes & consequences of drought
    Include human & physical causes, the effects & how they are managed
    Consider patterns of rainfall & how the land is managed
    CASE STUDIES: CAUSES, EFFECTS, RESPONSES
  • How can drought and desertification be managed?
  • Watch the slide show from
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/may/18/desertification-china?picture=347540416
    Mindmap the ways that people are affected by desertification
  • What is desertification?
  • How can it be managed?
    Afforestation?
    Terracing?
    Magic stones?
  • Exam Qs
    Describe & explain the causes of drought. [4marks]
    What are the patterns associated with droughts? [2marks]
    With reference to a case study, describe the effects of and responses to drought. [6marks]