Jenny Harding: Usable geographic information – what does it mean to users?


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Jenny Harding: Usable geographic information – what does it mean to users?

  1. 1. <ul><li>Usable geographic information – </li></ul><ul><li>what does it mean to users? </li></ul><ul><li>Jenny Harding, Ordnance Survey; Sarah Sharples, University of Nottingham; Muki Haklay, UCL; </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Burnett, University of Nottingham; Yasamin Dadashi, Network Rail; </li></ul><ul><li>David Forrest, University of Glasgow; Martin Maguire, Loughborough University; </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Parker, Loughborough University; Liz Ratcliffe, Ordnance Survey </li></ul><ul><li>AGI Conference, September 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Usability of GI </li></ul><ul><li>– important part in ‘Realising the value of place’ </li></ul><ul><li>– not straightforward as user experience partly depends on how data or information is accessed </li></ul>!!? £$ benefits/difficulties cost/value
  3. 3. This presentation <ul><li>Diversity in contexts of use for GI </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight some key challenges for evaluating usability of GI </li></ul>
  4. 4. Meaning of ‘usability’ <ul><li>“ extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use” </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9241-11 </li></ul>
  5. 5. GI trends and usability <ul><li>Increasing demands and user diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing trends from 2D to 3 and 4D </li></ul>Virtual worlds Justin Kase / Alamy + time Punchstock
  6. 6. GI trends and usability ---------------- -------- User interface Core database(s) Product generation Usability of source content and structure Usability of product content, structure, user guides etc Products & services Usability of interface , application , system etc
  7. 7. product usability – printed products Hardware, application, information User experience in task context
  8. 8. product usability – digital products Hardware Application interface Data User experience in task context - a composite of these
  9. 9. Human factors challenges <ul><li>User system interaction with : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly diverse user population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing systems functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing integration of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of multiple applications on single devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased collaboration and shared interactions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Human factors challenges <ul><li>Human factors methods are routinely applied to usability evaluations of interfaces …but less easily applied to data </li></ul><ul><li>Also need interface independent methods of evaluating GI usability </li></ul>
  11. 11. User diversity Limited knowledge of GI, trusts/accepts system output General user Data needs in relation to domain knowledge Specialist domain user Spatial analysis, fitness for analytical purpose, metadata Power user Data structure, performance, formats Developer Importing and managing GI System administrator Focus for GI Numbers User role
  12. 12. User contexts …GI usability priorities Climate info portal –professional and public Railway track workers General public Simple structure and interface, ease of access Data resolution, frequency of update, specific metadata + Meaning of terminology, support in data interpretation euroclim Priority and structure of information on screen; Trust in information; Intuitiveness of use
  13. 13. GI usability and system usability- e.g.1 <ul><li>User requires topographic base mapping as context for their own information – but map design and GIS use are not their main task? </li></ul><ul><li>Structured data helps selection of relevant information : need data model incorporating well structured and classified data </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge base approach can help user – components called from database based on user defined parameters for content and level of detail </li></ul><ul><li> Usability of system and GI structure & content is key </li></ul>David Forrest. Based on Ordnance Survey Strategi® data; Crown copyright 2005 / supplied by Digimap <ul><li>Potential issues with datasets: </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of feature classes </li></ul><ul><li>Class definitions and application not clear enough </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships between dataset classifications not clear enough </li></ul>
  14. 14. GI usability and system usability- e.g.2 <ul><li>GI can help enable vehicle applications </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. route guidance, speed warnings, obstacle collision avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Human centred issues with system and data: user attention, workload, situation awareness, trust/confidence </li></ul><ul><li>People can over-trust technology – e.g. following inappropriate routes as directed by satnav </li></ul><ul><li>Usability of system and GI in terms of content, accuracy and reliability/trust are key </li></ul>Epcot images / Alamy
  15. 15. Key research considerations for usability of GI <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces to data need to be evaluated with respect to the user role and context of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides application interfaces, data formats, user manuals and metadata can all be seen as part of the user interface with geographic data. </li></ul><ul><li>What metadata is needed for professionals and the public? How can we effectively communicate information about data? </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative system use is increasingly common, with shared interactions and shared data presenting an added dimension to user-system interaction. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key research considerations for usability of GI <ul><li>GI content, quality, structure, formats </li></ul><ul><li>How much and what information (in terms of content, resolution, quality) is needed for task completion in different user contexts? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we name and classify features (improved semantics)?. </li></ul><ul><li>How do cartographic rules in applications and dataset design help or conflict with information needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do ad hoc formats for GI (for example, Shapefiles, KML) dominate over dedicated formats (for example, NTF,GML)? What can we learn from successful/unsuccessful formats? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Key research considerations for usability of GI <ul><li>Trust and value </li></ul><ul><li>What influences users’ trust in GI? When and how do users understand (or care) where data has come from or how up to date it is? </li></ul><ul><li>What do different users value in different GI sources (with respect to diverse purposes for use, expertise with GI, age)? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Q. Usable geographic information – </li></ul><ul><li>what does it mean to users? </li></ul><ul><li>An interplay of many elements - data content and structure, communication of metadata, systems and application interfaces, user profiles, context of use, information value and trust …. </li></ul><ul><li>For evaluating usability of GI - need both: </li></ul><ul><li>interface independent methods to assess how information itself is used and understood in the user context </li></ul><ul><li>interface dependent evaluation in context of technologies of interaction and levels of user experience </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>?