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Om4 bbm(l) 25.03.11

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  • 1. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY
    • METHOD STUDY
    • &
    • WORK MEASUREMENT
  • 2. METHOD STUDY :EXAMPLE Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 1 Put on computer Op 0.2 2 Wait W 0.1 3 Computer is on Op 0.1 4 Msg(Fan Failure) Op 0.05 5 Check Msg Op 0.1 6 Telephone Technician Op 0.2 7 Wait W 15.0 8 Technician Checks Ins 1.2 9 Tells to send to Lab Op 0.2 10 Telephone for attender Op 0.1
  • 3. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 11 Wait W 30.0 12 Attender transports Trans 3.2 13 On Repair Table Storage 1440.0 14 Technician inspects Ins 5.6 15 Tech removes Fan Op 7.2 16 Walks to stores Trans 3.0 17 Waits W 9.0 18 Takes new fan,signs Op 5.0 19 Walks to Lab Trans 3.1 20 Fixes new fan O 8.2
  • 4. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 21 Inspects Ins 2.5 22 Calls for attender O 1.2 23 Waiting W 10.5 24 Attender carries it Trans 2.2 25 Connect to system O 1.2 26 Put on system O 0.3 27 Inspects fan working Ins 2.2 28 Start work O 0.2
  • 5. Operations 13 24.15 Inspections 5 11.6 Transportns 4 11.5 Delays 5 64.6 Storage 1 1440.0 Total 1551.85 25.86 Hrs
  • 6. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY
    • Work study : It is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with the ANALYSIS OF WORK METHODS AND EQUIPMENT used in performing a job, the DESIGN OF AN OPTIMUM WORK METHOD and the STANDARDISATION OF PROPOSED WORK METHODS .
    • The purpose of work study is to determine the best or most effective method of accomplishing a necessary operation
    • Time study and motion study are results of practices developed by F.W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.
  • 7. I.1 ) METHOD STUDY
    • Method study is also known as methods improvement, that eliminates wasteful and inefficient motions.
    • Industrial Engineering—Work Study—Method Study—Process Charts—Process Charts Symbols
    • “ METHOD STUDY is the systematic recording and critical examination of EXISTING and PROPOSED WAYS of DOING WORK as a means of DEVELOPING and APPLYING EASIER AND MORE EFFECTIVE METHODS and REDUCING COSTS” (B.S.I)
    • 6 steps Method study procedure
      • Select/Record/Examine/Develop/Install/Maintain
  • 8. METHOD STUDY
    • 6 steps Method study procedure
      • Select
      • Record
      • Examine
      • Develop
      • Install
      • Maintain
  • 9. METHOD STUDY
    • METHOD STUDY – USE OF PROCESS CHARTS :
    • Process Charts Symbols are utilized for simplifying the Recording of the Method.
    • The symbols represent different types of events.
    • Circle to represent Operation , Square for Inspection, Arrow for Transport, Triangle for Storage and D for Delay ( first two provide value addition
    • Process Charts used in Method Study
      • Outline process chart/Operation process chart/Flow process charts/Two handed process chart/Multiple activity chart/The man machine chart or worker-machine chart /Flow diagram/String diagram/SIMO chart
  • 10. MOTION STUDY& MICRO MOTION STUDY
    • Motion study is the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary; ill-directed and inefficient motion. The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of least waste methods of labour.
    • Micro motion study provides a valuable technique for making minute analysis of those operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements and involve high production over a long period of time.
    • Micro-motions are also known as ‘Therbligs’.
  • 11. THERBLIGS 1.Search (Sr) 2.Select (St) 3.Grasp (G) 4.Transport empty (TE) 5.Transport loaded (TL) 6.Hold (H) 7.Release load (RL) 8.Position (P) 9.Pre-position (PP) 10.Inspect (I) 11.Assemble (A) 12.Disassemble (DA) 13.Use (U) 14.Unavoidable delay (UD) 15.Avoidable delay (AD) 16.Plan (Pn) 17.Rest for overcoming fatigue (R) 18.Find (F)
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY& METHOD STUDY TOOLS
    • Principles of motion economy are divided into three groups.
      • Effective use of the operator
      • Arrangement of the workplace
      • Tools and equipment
      • Method Study Tools:
    • Motion study, Facilities Layout, Work Simplification, Flow process Charts, Ergonomics
  • 13. I.2 ) WORK MEASUREMENT
    • This form an important part of work study, itself a sub part of Industrial Engineering.
    • The dependency may be shown as
    • Industrial Engineering—Work Study—Work Measurement(Time Study)
    • Def:
    • “ TIME STUDY is a work measurement technique for recording the time and rating for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance by a qualified and trained worker” (B.S.I)
    • Qualified worker
  • 14. WORK MEASUREMENT
    • TECHNIQUES :
      • Direct Time Study/ Synthesis Method/
      • Analytical Estimating./Pre determined Motion Time System (PMTS)./Work sampling or Activity Sampling or Ratio Delay Method.
    • Work measurement involves 7 STEPS.
    • 1.Break the job into elements/2.Record the observed time for each element by means of either time study, synthesis or analytical estimating./3.Establish elemental time values by extending observed time into normal time for each element BY APPLYING A RATING FACTOR ./4.Assess relaxation allowance for personal needs and physical and mental fatigue involved in carrying out each element./5.Add the relaxation allowance time to the normal time for each element to arrive at the work content.
    • /6.Determine the frequency of occurrences of each element in the job, multiply the work content of each element by its frequency ( i.e., number of time the element occurs in the job) and add up the times to arrive at the work content for the job./7.Add contingency allowance if any to arrive at the standard time to do the job.
  • 15. 5METHODS OF WORK MEASUREMENT
    • 1.TIME STUDY
    • Time study is concerned with the determination of the amount of time required to perform a unit of work.
    • Objective of time study is to establish the standard time.
    • Time study by stop watch: The steps involved are
    • Select the job to be studied
    • Select the worker to be studied
    • Conducting stop watch time study
    • SYNTHESIS METHOD
    • Synthesis Method: Building up the time required to do a job at a defined level of performance.
    • ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING
    • Analytical Estimating: Used to determine the time values for jobs having long and non-repetitive operations.
    • PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)
    • PMTS: Normal times are established for basic human motions.
  • 16. METHODS OF WORK MEASUREMENT
    • WORK SAMPLING OR ACTIVITY SAMPLING OR RATIO-DELAY METHOD
    • Work sampling helps determine allowances for inclusion in standard times.
    • The work sampling study consists of essentially the following steps:
    • 1. Determine the objective of the study, including definitions of the states of activity to be observed.
    • 2. Plan the sampling procedure including:
      • (a) An estimate of the percentage of time being devoted to each phase of the activity.
      • (b) The setting of accuracy limits.
      • (c) An estimation of the number of observations required.
      • (d) The selection of the length of the study period and the programming of the number of readings over this period.
      • (e) The establishment of the mechanics of making the observations, the route to follow and the recording of data.
    • 3. Collect the data as planned.
    • 4. Process the data and present the results.
  • 17. METHOD STUDY- BENEFITS& WORK MEASUREMENT - BENEFITS
    • Method Study- Benefits:
    • Productivity Improvement , Further method Improvements, Optimisation of Resources, Cost Reduction, Profitability improvement, Competitive edge, Industrial growth, Improvement of Country’s Economy
    • Work Measurement - Benefits:
    • Productivity measurement & Improvement , Man power planning, Design of Wage Incentive Schemes, Cost Budgetting , Performance Measurement, PPC, M/C capacity planning, Further method Improvements
  • 18. WORK MSMNT PROBLEMS
    • Q1 ) Observed timing=20 Seconds , compute Normal/Basic time ?
    • If Rating is 80%, Normal/Basic time= 20*0.80=16 Secs
    • If Rating is 125%& 100%,, respective Normal/Basic times: 20*1.25=25 Secs &20*1.00=20 Secs
    • Q1.1) Normal/Basic timing=20 Seconds;
    • If Rating is 80%, Observed time= 20/0.80=25 Secs
    • If Rating is 125%/100%, respective Observed time= 201.25=16 Secs& 20/1.00=20 Secs
    • Q2)OT=1.53 Mins, R=80%, Allowances=16%, compute N.T , S.T, Production standards, productivity productivity?(NT=OT*R,ST=NT*(1+R), productivity =Output/man-hour,output/man-shift etc)
    • N.T=1.53*0.80=1.224 Mins/Item , S.T=1.224*1.16=1.41984, Production standards =60/1.41984=42.26 Items/hour,42.26*8=338 Items/shift, 338*3=1014 Items/ Day
    • & productivity = 42.26 Items/ man-hour,42.26*8=338 Items/man-shift, 338*3=1014 Items/ man-Day
  • 19. WORK MSMNT PROBLEMS
    • Q3) In an 8hours plant study, prodn=320 nos.,, idle time=15%, Performance rating=120%, Allowances=12% of Normal time, Determine standard time / unit produced?
    • prodn=320 nos in 8 hours(480 Mins),
    • Actual Production time=480 – 15% *480=480-72=408,OT=408/320= 1.275
    • NT= OT* R= 1.275*1.20=1.53
    • ST=NT* (1+R5)=1.53*1.12=1.7136
    • Production Standard = 60/1.7136=35/Hour. 35*8=280/Shift, 280*3=840/Day
  • 20. Q4)AN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER CONDUCTED A TIME STUDY FOR A JOB AND STUDY RESULTS ARE SUMMARISED.(TIME IN MINS, RA=12%,CA=3%). IDENTIFY &REMOVE OUT LIERS.COMPUTE BASIC TIME & S.T FOR THE JOB Elmt C1 C2 C3 C4 R Ttl avg NT= OT*R 12% RA= NT*0.12 3% CA= NT* 0.03 1 1.246 1.328 1.298 1.306 90 % 5.178 1.295 1.166 2 0.972 0.895 0.798 0.919 Mc 100 3.584 0.896 0.896 3 0.914 1.875 1.964 1.972 100 % 5.811 1.937 1.937 4 2.121 2.198 2.146 2.421 110 % 8.886 2.222 2.444 5 1.253 1.175 1.413 2.218 100 % 3.841 1.280 1.28 T 7.72 0.92 0.23 8.88
  • 21. WORK MSMNT PROBLEMS
    • Problems on work sampling: Refer Text book