all about LITERATURE


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all about LITERATURE

  2. 2. LITERATURE The word literature is derived from the Latin term litera (“literae” plural) which means letter. For Webster, literature is anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination.
  3. 3. LITERATURE In PANITIKING PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that “true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy in his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator.”
  4. 4. QUALITIES OF GREAT LITERATURE 1. Artistry- the quality that appeals our sense of beauty. 2. Intellectual value- the quality that enriches our mental life by making us realize the fundamental truth about life and human nature. 3. Suggestiveness- this is the quality associated with emotional power of literature. 4. Spiritual value- literature elevates the spirit by bringing out moral values which make us better person.
  5. 5. QUALITIES OF GREAT LITERATURE 5. Permanence- a great work of literature endures. 6. Style- this is the peculiar way in which writer sees life, form his ideas and express them.
  6. 6. QUESTION 1 Give one element of literature.
  7. 7. ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE 1. Subject of literature- any work of literature is about something, and for this reason it has subject. 2. Forms of literature- a form is a verbal and artistic structuring of ideas, like the sonnet which contain fourteen lines of iambic pentameter, others are stanza and rhyme. 3. Point of view of literature- the point of view is taken to mean the angle of vision of the narrator.
  8. 8. TYPES OF LITERATURE 1. Oral literature- literature handed down from generation by word of mouth. Examples are riddle, folk song, tales, epics, ballad, etc. 2. Written literature- hand written, recorded or printed. Examples are novels, short stories. Etc.
  9. 9. QUESTION 2 It is the one of the category of literature that is an imaginative form.
  10. 10. FORMS OF LITERATURE 1. Fiction- a literary work based of imagination. 2. Non-fiction- a literary work that is true.
  11. 11. QUESTION 3 A literary figure who offers a value of judgment or an interpretation.
  12. 12. LITERARY FIGURES 1. Authors originate or initiate something 2. Critics’ person who offers a value judgment or an interpretation. 3. Dramatist an author of dramatic compositions 4. Essayist who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. 5. Journalist is a person who practices journalism.
  13. 13. 6. Novelist writer of a novel 7. Poets are authors of poems LITERARY FIGURES
  14. 14. QUESTION 4 History is not not part of literature.
  15. 15. HISTORY AND LITERATURE Literature and history are closely interrelated. History can also be written and this too, is literature. Events that can be written down are part of true literature. Literature, therefore, is part of history.
  16. 16. LITERARY COMPOSITIONS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE WORLD. 1. The Bible or the Sacred Writings 2. Koran 3. The Iliad and the Odyssey 4. The Mahab-harata 5. Canterbury Tales 6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  17. 17. LITERARY COMPOSITIONS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE WORLD. 7. The Divine Comedy 8. El Cid Campeador 9. The Song of Roland 10. The Book of the Dead 11. The Book of the Days 12. One Thousand and One Nights or The Arabian Nights
  18. 18. QUESTION 5 A genre of literature that does not adhere to any particular formal structure not totally rhyming.
  19. 19. GENRES(DIVISIONS) OF LITERATURE A.Prose - writing that does not adhere to any particular formal structure not totally rhyming. 1) Novels. A long narrative divided into chapters and events are taken from true-to- life stories. Example: WITHOUT SEEING THE DAWN by Stevan Javellana
  20. 20. TYPES OF PROSE 2) Short story. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression. Example: HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGHT HOME A WIFE by Manuel Arguilla 3) Plays. This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes. Example:THIRTEEN PLAYS by Wilfredo M. Guerrero
  21. 21. 4) Legends. These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. Example:THE BIKOL LEGEND by Pio Duran 5) Fables. These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. Example:THE MONKEY AND THE TURTLE TYPES OF PROSETYPES OF PROSE
  22. 22. 6) Anecdotes. These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. Example: THE MOTH AND THE LAMP 7) Essay. This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper. TYPES OF PROSE
  23. 23. 8) Biography. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others. Example: CAYETANO ARELLANO by Socorro O. Albert 9) News. This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and accidents, happening nationally or not. TYPES OF PROSE
  24. 24. 10)Oration. This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. TYPES OF PROSE
  25. 25. QUESTION 6 A genre of literature which refers to those expressions in verse with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has more melodious tone.
  26. 26. GENRES(DIVISIONS) OF LITERATURE B. POETRY A genre of literature which refers to those expressions in verse with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has more melodious tone. Elements of Poetry 1. Sound- poems use rhyme, rhythm, and repetition to create sound effects.  Rhyme is the regular recurrence of similar sounds usually at the end of lines.
  27. 27. POETRY The lone dog Irene Rutherford McLeod I’m a lean dog, a keen dog, a wild dog and lone; I’m a rough dog, a tough dog, hunting on my own; I’m a bad dog, a mad dog, teasing silly sheep; I love to sit and bay the moon to keep fat souls from sleep.
  28. 28. QUESTION 7 It is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poem.
  29. 29.  Rhythm is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poem. ALONG CAME the DOCtor! ALONG CAME the NURSE! ALONG CAME the LAdy! With BIG FAT PURSE! POETRY
  30. 30. POETRY  Repetition is the repeated use of a sound, word, phrase, sentence, rhythmical pattern or grammatical pattern. • Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds. Example: over the cobbles, he cluttered and clashed in the dark inn yard. • Consonance is the repetition of internal consonants sounds Example: the spotted kitten slept quietly on matted fur.
  31. 31. POETRY • Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds. Example: young fuzzy puppy. • Meter refers to words with regular rhythm. Example: the sun is shining brightly now. • Parallelism is the repetition of grammatical pattern. Example: through the door and up the stairs. • Onomatopoeia words that sound like what they mean. Example: crunch, chirp, roar, etc.
  32. 32. 2. Shape- poets often play with the shapes of words on page to suggest meaning. POETRY
  33. 33. POETRY 3. Image/imagery is the use of concrete words or details that appeal to the senses of light, sound, touch, smell, taste or to internal feelings. Simile Metaphor Personification Apostrophe Allusion Rhetorical question Irony Synecdoche Metonymy Hyperbole
  34. 34. TYPES OF POETRY A. Narrative Poetry. This form describes important events in life either real or imaginary. The different varieties are: 1. Epic. This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. Example: THE HARVEST SONG OF ALIGUYON translated in English by Amador T. Daguio
  35. 35. TYPES OF POETRY 2. Metrical Tale. This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or a metrical romance. Examples: BAYANI NG BUKID by Al Perez
  36. 36. QUESTION 8 A narrative poetry that is the shortest and simplest.
  37. 37. 3. Ballads. Of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident. TYPES OF POETRY
  38. 38. TYPES OF POETRY B. Lyric Poetry. Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. 1. Folksongs (Awiting Bayan). These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow. Example: CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT
  39. 39. QUESTION 9 This is a lyrical poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea.
  40. 40. TYPES OF POETRY 2. Sonnets. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea. These are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean. 3. Elegy. This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death. Example: O Captain! My Captain! by Walt Whitman Sonnet CXVI Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: O no! it is an ever-fixed mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wandering bark, Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle's compass come: Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom. If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
  41. 41. TYPES OF POETRY 4. Ode. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza. 5. Psalms (Dalit). This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life. 6. Awit (Song). These have measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria. Example: FLORANTE AT LAURA by Franciso Balagtas
  42. 42. TYPES OF POETRY 7. Corridos (Kuridos). These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat. Example: IBONG ADARNA
  43. 43. QUESTION 10 It comes from the Greek term “komos” meaning festivity or revelry.
  44. 44. TYPES OF POETRY C. Dramatic Poetry 1. Comedy. The word comedy comes from the Greek term “komos” meaning festivity or revelry. This form usually is light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.
  45. 45. 2. Melodrama. This is usually used in musical plays with the opera. 3. Tragedy. This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces. 4. Farce. This is an exaggerated comedy. 5. Social Poems. This form is either purely comic or tragic and it pictures the life of today. It may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions. TYPES OF POETRY
  46. 46. HISTORY OF LITERATURE Before 500 B.C., there was almost no written literature. Clay tablets, clay and stone were the first mediums of the writing arts. Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Written literature begins. The mediums of papyrus and paints and inks made writing easier which came into more common use after the fifth century B.C.
  47. 47. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works. This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in the Sumerian language. It was most likely composed around 1900 BC. The epic deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for eternal life. The Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the middle ages. HISTORY OF LITERATURE
  48. 48. HISTORY OF LITERATURE The Renaissance literature refers to the period in European literature which began in Italy during the 15th century and spread around Europe through the 17th century. Early Modern literature lasts roughly from 1550 to 1750, spanning the Baroque period and ending with the Age of Enlightenment and the wars of the French Revolution.
  49. 49. HISTORY OF LITERATURE An Egyptian hieroglyph is a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptian that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements.
  50. 50. A logogram, or logograph, is a grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language). Grapheme is a fundamental unit in a written language. HISTORY OF LITERATURE “sun” “house” “mountain”
  51. 51. HISTORY OF LITERATURE Indian Literature – focuses entirely on religion which includes ritual. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, dating back to 1500–1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. Chinese Literature- Chinese developed the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing, produced one of the world's first print cultures.
  52. 52. HISTORY OF LITERATURE Greek and Roman – focuses on political and social life. Latin Literature – results of unconnected political event. Medieval European Literature - adoption of Christianity as the official Roman religion. French Literature -greatest literary manifestation of this was lyric poetry. American Literature – English language as used for more popular works.
  53. 53. HISTORY OF LITERATURE Philippine literature • The first alphabet used by our ancestors was similar to that of the Malayo-Polynesian alphabet. • Types of literature present in pre-Spanish era  EPICS  FOLK SONGS  EPIGRAMS (SALAWIKAIN).
  54. 54. END
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