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WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings
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WOMology | Dumbing Down Smart WOM Research Findings

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Academics are publishing smart research papers and dissertations on word of mouth marketing. However, these rigorous studies are just that—rigorous. Far too rigorously academic for most marketers to …

Academics are publishing smart research papers and dissertations on word of mouth marketing. However, these rigorous studies are just that—rigorous. Far too rigorously academic for most marketers to understand and act upon. Enter Geno Church (Brains on Fire) and John Moore (Brand Autopsy). They’ve dissected some of the smartest academic research papers on WOMM into bite-size nuggets of marketing know-how. Think “Rocks for Jocks” but instead of Geology, it’s WOMology.

5-MINUTE AUDIO VERSION:
http://slidesha.re/LpEZY4

LEARN MORE:
Geno Church | www.BrainsOnFire.com
john moore | www.BrandAutopsy.com

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  • 1. Geno Church| Brains On Fire John Moore | Brand Autopsy
  • 2. WOMM is an interesting tribe… researchers, creationists, and evolutionists.
  • 3. Since Word of Mouth Marketing was birthed as a discipline in 2004, opposing sides have often formed and battles have been fought.
  • 4. Some fly the flag of online and social media,
  • 5. others claim the purists flag and champion face-to-face word of mouth as the end all be all.
  • 6. Ive taken the purists flag to war many times…
  • 7. but, I had a revelation. I dont practice what I preach…  When our work at BOF has been successful… our work strategies are fueled by online and offline cohabitation…
  • 8. When our work at BOF has been successful… our work strategies are fueled by online and offline cohabitation…
  • 9. My belief: these unlikely partners work their best when they have an intimate relationship. Led me down the pages of stacks of research on all things WOMM.  
  • 10. The Latest & GreatestMy fellow WOMM adventurer John Moore is also a passionate collector of WOMM research.John and I challenged ourselves to uncover and dig into the latest and greatest WOMM research out there.....
  • 11. what we found looks like rocket science, but with a little reading patience and and a lot of highlighting and conversation…
  • 12. All this shit...
  • 13. makes senseSo, John and I thought lets have some and share what weve learned…
  • 14. DIALOGUE: WOMology is a mashed-up approach to understanding smart word of mouth research findings. I sucked at chemistry in school, but I loved the periodic table (hello art school). Visions of my highs school chemistry classroom wall of the periodic table came rushing back to my memory as I tried to simplify and visualize the elements of WOMology.
  • 15. The center piece for WOMology is a 55 page brick of knowledge… ON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH, by the Marketing Science Institute
  • 16. Functional. Social. Emotional.Our researchers have identified three key motivators that drive people to spread word of mouth about brands, products, and services.These conversation trigger are: Functional, Social, Emotional
  • 17. So before we go too much favor i thought id show you our very own Periodic Table of WOM elements. Looks something like this. So back to that research....
  • 18. These conversation trigger are: Functional, Social, Emotional
  • 19. The Social Trigger speaks to our need to express our uniqueness to others in social settings.The Social Trigger speaks to our need to express our uniqueness to others in social settings.
  • 20. The Emotional Trigger drives people to share positive or negative feelings about a brand.The Emotional Trigger drives people to share positive or negative.
  • 21. The Functional Trigger explains why people share knowledge and seek knowledge about brands.And, the Functional Trigger explains why people share knowledge and seek knowledge about brands.
  • 22. Lets break down the elements of how the Functional Trigger can make brands more talkable…
  • 23. People rely more on "word of mouth" for brands that are new and or highly complex.People rely more on "word of mouth" for brands and businesses that are new and or highly complex.
  • 24. People engage in Functional conversations about brands to get information needed to make decisions and to better interpret the world around them.People engage in Functional conversations about brands to get information needed to make decisions and to better interpret the world around them.
  • 25. According to, ON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH, newness and complexity play a pivotable role in driving WOM conversations about brands, products, and services.
  • 26. With new and complex products, people need help to understand why to use it, how to use it, when to use it, and where to use it.People rely more on "word of mouth" for brands and businesses that are new and or highly complex. With new and complex products, people need help to understand why to use it, how to use it, when to use it, and where to use it.
  • 27. “People engage in WOM in order to get the necessary information needed to survive, to interpret the world in order to function.” -Emanuel Rosen Anatomy of Buzz (2002)…Interestingly Emanuel Rosen (200) Anatomy of Buzz… claimed people engage in WOM in order to get the necessary information needed to survive, to interpret the world in order to function.
  • 28. We naturally talk to function.Dumbed Down: We naturally talk to function.
  • 29. a story
  • 30. Amy@NoMeatballsAmy’s story began on Twitter. Beingnew to Greenville, she didnt have ago-to glasses shop, so she threw thequestion out to her Twitterfollowing. A friend in Texasresponded, suggesting Amycheck out Warby Parker. online Fc Fn Fx functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 31. So Amy did..... online Fc Fn Fx functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 32. Amy was initially wary of anonline glasses store. Amyloved the idea of every pair offrames/lenses being under$100 (compared to the $300or $400 typically spent in"real" stores), being one ofthose people who needs to tryon 50 pairs before she findsthe perfect pair. WPs hometry-on program was a perfectfit for Amy. online Fc Fn Fx functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 33. All you have to do is goonto their website,choose five pairs, andWP sends you an at-home kit to try theglasses on for 5 days. online Fc Fn Fx functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 34. If you like one, you sendit back and let themknow. Theyll make theglasses with yourprescription. If youdont like any of theframes, you send themback and select anotherfive you want to give ago. WP covers the cost Fc Fn Fxof shipping to and fro.  online functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 35. Those who are a littleindecisive can uploadpics of themselveswearing their try-onframes, and a WP teamof specialists (alongwith the WP Facebookfan base) will vote onwhich frames they likethe best.  Fc Fn Fx functional functional online functional newness complexity
  • 36. Within ten days of first learningabout WP Amy had tried on tenpairs of glasses, placed her orderonline and received her newglasses.“It has been even more fungetting to spread the word aboutWP to others in my social circle.Its a fun, fresh, engagingbusiness model that not onlymakes shopping for glasses fun,it inspires you to bring otherpeople into the fold, too.”  online Fc Fn Fx functional functional newness functional complexity
  • 37. onlineHereʼs a great ONLINE example of some FUNCTIONAL WOM
  • 38. onlinePinterest is new. Itʼs a new online social sharing site that is becoming popular thanks to word of mouth. We already have Facebook that eats up much of our time online. We also have Twitter, blogs, and lots of other things to do online. Itʼs not easy for a new social media website to become popular, but Pinterest is carving out a nice niche and attractingmillions of users. The only way for people to use Pinterest is to get an invitation to use it. Current Pinterest users are given invites to pass out to their friends to join. When inviting their friends to join, current Pinterest users explain, by FUNCTIONAL word of mouth, why to use Pinterest, how to use it, when to use it, and where to use it. 
  • 39. New & Complex onlineComplex products and services require FUNCTIONAL word of mouth in order to become popular.
  • 40. offlineHereʼs another great example of FUNCTIONAL WOM, this time offline. Bikram Yoga
  • 41. Bikram Yoga is more complicated than the meditation and relaxation Yoga most of us know. Bikram Yoga is an intense 90-minute Yoga workout done in a room heated to 105-degrees with 40% humidity. Ainʼt no way around it, you will sweat and get a great workout while doing.....
  • 42. ......ALL 26 postures and 2 breathing exercises in Bikram Yoga. The rising popularity of Bikram Yoga is a result of FUNCTIONAL word of mouth. Practitioners of Bikram Yoga swear by its ability to improve oneʼs cardio endurance, to tone, strengthen, and lengthen muscles, to burn calories, and to sweat out toxins. All of those benefits become talking points when people tell others about how Bikram Yoga makes them feelbetter.
  • 43. Complex
  • 44. If your brand is new to the marketplace or complicated in nature, FUNCTIONAL word of mouth will help you become more talkable.Functional word of mouth conversations are based upon sharing useful information about brands, products, and services. If your brand is new to the marketplace or complicated in nature, FUNCTIONAL word of mouth will help you become more talkable.
  • 45. Lets now focus on how the Social Trigger can make brands more talkable.
  • 46. People engage in Social conversations about brands to impress others, to express uniqueness, and to increase their reputation.Our research, ON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH explains that people engage in Social conversations about brands to impress others, to express uniqueness, and to increase their reputation.
  • 47. Academics refer to this… I love this… Social Signaling
  • 48. Social Signaling plays a significant role in driving word of mouth conversations. People will signal to society their uniqueness, their expertise, and their passions by talking about brands they uniquely identify with.
  • 49. People can feel better about who they are by talking to others about brands that are as distinctive and interesting as they view themselves.Social Signaling is a form of self-enhancement. People can feel better about who they are by talking to others about brands that are as distinctive and interesting as someone views him or herself.
  • 50. “The higher the degree of differentiation of a brand, the easier it is for an individual to project uniqueness.”According to authors of this study, “The higher the degree of differentiation of a brand, the easier it is for an individual to project uniqueness by engaging in word of mouth about it.”
  • 51. We’ve all engaged in word of mouth conversations about brands that signal our uniqueness to others…
  • 52. Now lets dig into the final element, the final trigger and how our Emotions spark marketing-related conversations.
  • 53. Em emotional Brands that invoke STRONG EMOTIONS are more likely to be TALKED ABOUT.Brands that invoke strong Emotions are more likely to be talked about.
  • 54. Em emotional When we are OVERJOYED, we TELL OTHERS.When we are overjoyed about a brand, we tell others.
  • 55. Em emotional When we are DISGUSTED, we TELL OTHERS.when we are disgusted we tell others.
  • 56. Em emotional And when we are INDIFFERENT, we DON’T TELL OTHERS.And, when we are indifferent about a brand, we donʼt tell others.
  • 57. Jonah BergerON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH cites Jonah Bergers 2011 research, on social transmission… for us non-academics…
  • 58. translated...thats, just simple - word of mouth. Berger, assistant marketing professor at the Wharton School of Business, says that emotions play a large role in driving word of mouth. When a person experiences emotional arousal, you share that experience with others. 
  • 59. “Emotions play a large role in driving word of mouth. When a person experiences emotional arousal, they share the experience with others.”  -Jonah Berger Wharton School of BusinessON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH cites Jonah Bergers 2011 research, on social transmission… for us non-academics… thats word of mouth. Berger, assistant marketing professor at the Wharton School of Business, says that emotions play a large role in driving word of mouth. When a person experiences emotional arousal, you share that experiencewith others. 
  • 60. High arousal emotions, like AMUSEMENT and ANXIETY, drive word of mouth conversations. Emotions characterized by low arousal, such as sadness or contentment… not so much.High arousal emotions, like amusement and anxiety, drive word of mouth conversations. Emotions characterized by low arousal, such as sadness or contentment… not so much.
  • 61. Geeky TidBit Em Ea Ex emotional emotional amusement emotional anxietyOne more interesting geeky tidbit from the Berger research paper,. Jogging… boosts general arousal over sitting. Student studies showed that students jogging over those who were sitting were more likely to spread neutral or low arousal online article.
  • 62. Jogging… boosts general arousal over sitting. Em Ea Ex emotional emotional amusement emotional anxietyOne more interesting geeky tidbit from the Berger research paper,. Jogging… boosts general arousal over sitting. Student studies showed that students jogging over those who were sitting were more likely to spread neutral or low arousal online article.
  • 63. Student studies showed that students who jogged over those who sat were more likely to spread a neutral or low arousal online article. Em Ea Ex emotional emotional amusement emotional anxietyOne more interesting geeky tidbit from the Berger research paper,. Jogging… boosts general arousal over sitting. Student studies showed that students jogging over those who were sitting were more likely to spread neutral or low arousal online article.
  • 64. Huh?So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission… or in our case word of mouth.
  • 65. So what does this mean?So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission… or in our case word of mouth.
  • 66. Yes, anxiety and emotion in general can boost WOM. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission - er, i mean WOMSo what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission… or in our case word of mouth.
  • 67. Ok,Cool.So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission… or in our case word of mouth. So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom.
  • 68. Double Rainbow Dude.So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom. But also situations that heighten arousal should boost social transmission… or in our case word of mouth. So what does this mean… yes anxiety and emotion in general can boost wom.
  • 69. tap into stories about products that communicate amazing, amusing, and awe-inspiring aspects about a brand.The key for brand marketers is to tap into stories about products that communicate amazing, amusing, and awe-inspiring aspects about a brand.
  • 70. Em Ea emotional emotional amusementThe stories Apple tells about its products induce high-arousal feelings. The iPad is an awe-inspiring device...
  • 71. Em Ea emotional emotional amusementjust as the iPhone is an amazing piece of technology. Both products are highly talk-able.
  • 72. Cause-relatedmarketers can benefit by bringing forth stories that convey troubling andworrisome emotions. Em Ex emotional emotional anxiety
  • 73. Em Ex emotional emotional anxietyCan we get video to play in here... can you swipe from you tube?Cause-related marketers can benefit by bringing forth stories that convey troubling and worrisome emotions. Product RED is on a mission to raise awareness and funds to help eliminate AIDS in Africa. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is troubling beyond measure. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa stirs high arousal emotions in all of us. When Product RED partners with business like Nike, Starbucks, and Gap to create special products, it sparks emotions, conversations, andpurchases. Itʼs reported Product RED has generated over $150 million for HIV/AIDS programs in Africa. Thatʼs an amazing and worrisome story on its own.
  • 74. Em Ex emotional emotional anxietyCan we get video to play in here... can you swipe from you tube?Cause-related marketers can benefit by bringing forth stories that convey troubling and worrisome emotions. Product RED is on a mission to raise awareness and funds to help eliminate AIDS in Africa. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is troubling beyond measure. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa stirs high arousal emotions in all of us. When Product RED partners with business like Nike, Starbucks, and Gap to create special products, it sparks emotions, conversations, andpurchases. Itʼs reported Product RED has generated over $150 million for HIV/AIDS programs in Africa. Thatʼs an amazing and worrisome story on its own.
  • 75. Emotional word of mouth conversations are sparked when people are highly aroused. If your brand can spark amusement, amazement, and or anxiety, then your brand stands a far better chance of being talkable by being more emotional.Emotional word of mouth conversations are sparked when people are highly aroused. If your brand can spark amusement, amazement, and or anxiety, then your brand stands a far better chance of being Talkable by being more Emotional.
  • 76. Now comes IMO the interesting part of the research from, ON BRANDS AND WORD OF MOUTH. 
  • 77. The study mixed, indexed, calculated, and analyzed brand-related word of mouth conversations from three distinct points: Keller Fay Talk Track® data for offline conversations, Nielsen-McKinsey Incite Buzzmetrics data for online conversations, and the Young & Rubicam Brand Asset Valuator for brand strength measurements.
  • 78. Brands are talked about in two conversation channels, the offline channel and the online channel.Brands are talked about in two conversation channels, the offline channel and the online channel. The differences between these conversation channels are dramatic.
  • 79. Offline conversations are usually with people in personal, one-on-one situations — making it more appropriate to talk emotionally about matters.According to the paper, our offline conversations are usually with people in personal, one-on-one situations — making it more appropriate to talk emotionally about matters.
  • 80. Online conversations are usually with people in more public settings like Facebook and Twitter — thus, making it more of a channel to broadcast our uniqueness, our expert knowledge, and our passions.And, our online conversations are usually with people in more public settings like Facebook and Twitter — thus, making it more of a channel to broadcast our uniqueness, expert knowledge, and passions.
  • 81. ok class...letʼs recap… and start to build our elements… our triggers into the Periodic Table of WOMology 
  • 82. We engage in FUNCTIONAL conversations about brands to get information needed to make a decision and to better interpret the world around us.People engage in FUNCTIONAL conversations about brands to get information needed to make a decision and to better interpret the world around them
  • 83. We participate in SOCIAL conversations about brands that allow us to socially signal our uniqueness, expertise and passion.We participate in SOCIAL conversations about brands to impress others, to express their uniqueness, and to increase their reputation.
  • 84. People engage in EMOTIONAL conversations about brands because of excitement and love for some brands and disgust for other brands.People engage in EMOTIONAL conversations about brands because of excitement and love for some brands and disgust for other brands.
  • 85. When talking with people face-to-face and voice-to-voice, we are motivated first by our EMOTIONAL trigger,When talking with people face-to-face and voice-to-voice, we are motivated first by our EMOTIONAL trigger,
  • 86. then by our FUNCTIONAL trigger,then our FUNCTIONAL trigger,
  • 87. and thirdly, our SOCIAL trigger.and thirdly, our SOCIAL trigger.
  • 88. Online, we are motivated first by our SOCIAL trigger,Our motivations to talk about brands Online differ in a significant way. Online, we are motivated first by our SOCIAL trigger,
  • 89. second by our FUNCTIONAL triggersecond by our FUNCTIONAL trigger
  • 90. thirdly by our EMOTIONAL trigger.and thirdly by our EMOTIONAL trigger.
  • 91. } Periodic Table { of WOMology onlineoffline
  • 92. Since our offline conversations are usually with people in personal, one-on-one situations, itʼs more appropriate for us to express emotions like amusement, admiration, and anxiety about brands.
  • 93. Itʼs far more difficult for people to express a full range of emotions using words online rather than words and physical expressions in a verbal conversation. The tonality of our emotions gets lost in the translation when we write how we feel.
  • 94. The online conversations we have about brands are usually with people out in the open on social networks and blogs. Because these conversations are in the open, online word of mouth is used more as a channel to broadcast our uniqueness, expert knowledge, and passions.
  • 95. The marketing implications off all this are simple.
  • 96. focus your marketing efforts on getting current customers to tell their friends and friends of friends to spread word of mouth offline.If you have a brand or product thatʼs somewhat complicated and isnʼt an impulse buy, focus your marketing efforts on getting current customers to tell their friends and friends of friends to spread word of mouth offline.  
  • 97. spend more time using online marketing activities to get people sharing and talking. However, if your brand or product is trendy and can enhance oneʼs reputation, spend more time using online marketing activities to get people sharing and talking.
  • 98. focus on bringing forth stories that evoke strong emotional reactions not indifference offline / online If your Brand has an emotional aspect to it GOES TO THE HEART - focus on bringing forth stories that evoke EXTREME emotion - Donʼt just make people happy - make them overjoyed, Donʼt make them sad make them disgusted, or angry, or heartbroken - dont just entertain - INSPIRE - STRONG VS INDIFFERENT.
  • 99.  If you better understand WHY people are talking about your brand and WHERE people are talking, you’ll be in a better place to design marketing activities in the RIGHT channel, offline or online, in order to make your brand more conversational to become more talkable. If you better understand why people are talking about your brand and where people are talking, youʼll be in a better place to design marketing activities in the right channel, offline or online, in order to make your brand more conversational to become more talkable.
  • 100. Some last minute research re-do… from Jonah Berger and Eric Schwartz… How Interest Shapes Word-of-Mouth Over Different Channels
  • 101. connects us as Humans WOMWOM is robust and as weve learned from our other papers its important, it connects us as humans.
  • 102. We talk about movies, shoes, bad restaurants, and how to fix a leaky faucet.We talk about movies, shoes, bad restaurants, and how to fix a leaky faucet.
  • 103. Much less is know about… What leads people to talk about a certain product or brand rather than others.Slide: We know the VALUE of people talking… thats why were here!Chat: much less is known about what leads people to talk about a certain product or brand rather than others.
  • 104. Can the conversation channel itself shape what PEOPLE talk about?Thats why this research is important… it seeks to find out whether the conversation channel itself shapes what PEOPLE talk about.
  • 105. Prior research showed: rather thanbeing driven by motivation, WOM,particularly ongoing WOM, is driven byaccessibility.
  • 106. WOM can be shared in many different ways… we have face to face conversations we post on blogs we write online reviews we send texts we send emails chat on our phonesWOM can be shared in many different ways… we have face to face conversationspost on blogssend textswrite on line reviewschat on our phones
  • 107. The conversation channel continuity shape what gets discussed…lets get to it: the conversation channel continuity shape what gets discussed…
  • 108. In discontinuous channels (online, text), pauses between conversational turns are expected… So, people have time to select and craft what they say.In discontinuous channels (online, text), pauses between conversational turns are expected… so, people have time to select and craft what they say.
  • 109. More interesting products should be talked about more than boring ones.Consequently, more interesting products should be talked about more than boring ones.
  • 110. In channels where conversations occur more continuously (f2f, phone). There is less time to be selective about what you talk about.In channels where conversations occur more continuously (f2f, phone). There is less time to be selective about what you talk about.
  • 111. People communicate information when they talk… they also communicate things about themselves.people communicate information when they talk…they also communicate things about themselves.if someone always talks about new restaurants… people may infer that they are a foodie.
  • 112. People not only communicate through what they talk about, they also communicate through how they talk.people not only communicate through what they talk about, they also communicate through how they talk.such as rate of speech, speed of turn taking, and avoidance of pauses between conversational turns, all communicate things about the speaker.
  • 113. Most face-to-face conversations as well as phone conversations involve continuous discussion. There is an expectation that ongoing conversation will occur, and it is awkward to sit in silence.Expectations about conversation style, vary based on the conversation channel (e.g., face-to-face vs. email). Think about the last time you had lunch with a friend or shared a cab with an acquaintance. Most face-to-face settings as well as phone conversations involve continuous discussion. There is an expectation that ongoing conversation will occur, and itis awkward to sit in silence. Both parties try to keep the conversation flowing,
  • 114. Contrast that, with the types of conversations that occur online; discussion forums, blogs or Facebook, they’re mostly discontinuous in nature. People have time to deliberate and think through what they say.Contrast that, with the types of conversations that often occur in online discussion forums, blogs or Facebook, theyʼre mostly discontinuous in nature. One person writes a post or comment, but there is no expectation that someone else will respond right away. In fact, even if a person does decide to respond, it may occur hours or even days later.people have time to deliberate and think through what they say.
  • 115. Many Practitioners often argue that products need to be interesting to be talked about…Many Practitioners often argue that products need to be interesting to be talked about…
  • 116. When conversations are expected to be discontinuous, people have time to select and craft what they say. They have more opportunity to think of a clever or interesting response and can wait to respond until they have something worthwhile to talk about.When conversations are expected to be discontinuous, people have time to select and craft what they say. They have more opportunity to think of a clever or interesting response and can wait to respond until they have something worthwhile to talk about.
  • 117. In discontinuous channels people should be more likely to post or share something if they think it will be interesting.in discontinuous channels people should be more likely to post or share something if they think it will be interesting.
  • 118. When conversations are continuous, as in most face-to-face interactions, there is less time to selectively pick what one talks about.When conversations are expected to be continuous, however, as in most face-to-face interactions, there is less time to selectively pick what one talks about.
  • 119. People will talk about whatever is top-of-mind to keep the conversation flowing.so rather than waiting to think of the most interesting thing to say, people will talk about whatever is top-of-mind to keep the conversation flowing. It is not that people do not have enough interesting things to talk about; rather, they do not have the time to select the most interesting thing. They just talk about whatever is accessible. Almost anything is betterthan dead silence and few things will be deemed too boring to talk about.
  • 120. before you cry… bullshit! lets put the research under the microscope…Slide: Before you cry Bull Shit! Our researchers use three methods of analysis.
  • 121. 1) aggregate word-of-mouth data from people who have conversations both online and offline (pilot study). 2) individual-level dataset covering word-of-mouth over various channels. It contained over 35,000 brand and product mentions of approximately 6,000 people who recorded all of the word-of- mouth they engaged in, as well as the channel they used (face-to- face, online posts, or text) over a one-day period. 3) tested the causal impact of conversation continuity through an experiment. We keep the conversation channel itself the same but manipulate whether people expect to pause (or not) before and between conversational turns.Slide: Before you cry Bull Shit! Our researchers use three methods of analysis.
  • 122. results
  • 123. There was a positive and significant relationship between interest and online posts in online conversations, more interesting products were mentioned more frequently than their less interesting counterparts.Face-to-face word-of-mouth was more frequent than online word-of-mouth.More importantly, the relationship between interest and word-of-mouth differed by channel. There was a positive and significant relationship between interest and online posts in online conversations, more interesting products were mentioned more frequently than their less interesting counterparts.
  • 124. In contrast, there was no relationship between interest and face-to-face word- of-mouth in face-to-face conversations, more interesting products were not mentioned more frequently than their less interesting counterparts.In contrast, there was no relationship between interest and face-to-face word-of-mouth in face-to-face conversations,more interesting products were not mentioned more frequently than their less interesting counterparts. These correlations are significantly different from one another.
  • 125. Interest has a much larger impact on online conversations than offline conversations. Similarly, interest has a larger impact on text or email rather than phone conversations.Interest has a much larger impact on online conversations than offline conversations. Similarly, interest has a larger impact on text or email rather than phone conversations
  • 126. Not only was the relationship between interest and word-of-mouth different in online and offline channels, but results were the same for other types of continuous (phone) and discontinuous (text and email) conversation channels.Second, the results suggest that the continuity of the conversation channels drove these effects. Not only was the relationship between interest and word-of-mouth different in online and offline channels, but results were the same for other types of continuous (phone) and discontinuous (text and email) conversation channels. Thus rather than being driven bywhether the conversation is online or offline per se, the set of results is better explained by whether the conversation channel is continuous or discontinuous.
  • 127. When pauses between and before conversational turns are expected (discontinuous), more interesting topics and brands are more likely to be discussed than less interesting ones. In contrast, when pauses between and before conversational turns is not expected (continuous), this difference disappears.When pauses between and before conversational turns are expected (discontinuous conversation), more interesting topics and brands are more likely to be discussed than less interesting ones. In contrast, when pauses between and before conversational turns is not expected (continuous conversation), this difference disappears.
  • 128. If the goal is to get more discussion online, framing the product in an interesting or surprising way should help. Ads or online content that surprises people, violates expectations, or evokes interest in some other manner should be more likely to be shared.Practitioners often believe that products need to be interesting to be talked about, but our results suggest they are only right for certain word-of-mouth channels. If the goal is to get more discussion online, our results suggest that framing the product in an interesting or surprising way should help. Ads or online content that surprises people, violatesexpectations, or evokes interest in some other manner should be more likely to be shared.
  • 129. If the goal is to get more offline word-of- mouth, however, then other factors may be more important than evoking interest. In a face-to-face context, making the product accessible in consumer minds, or publicly visible, may be more important.If the goal is to get more offline word-of-mouth, however, then other factors may be more important than evoking interest. In a face-to-face context, making the product accessible in consumer minds, or publicly visible, may be more important.
  • 130.  If you better understand WHY people are talking about your brand and WHERE people are talking, you’ll be in a better place to design marketing activities in the RIGHT channel, offline or online, in order to make your brand more conversational to become more talkable. If you better understand why people are talking about your brand and where people are talking, youʼll be in a better place to design marketing activities in the right channel, offline or online, in order to make your brand more conversational to become more talkable.
  • 131. } Periodic Table { of WOMology onlineoffline
  • 132. Class Dismissed Geno Church | @GenoChurch John Moore | @BrandAutopsy On Brands and Word-Of-Mouth Renana Peres, Ron Shachar, Mitch Lovett Arousal Increases Social Transmission of Information Jonah Berger How Interest Shapes Word-of-Mouth Over Different Channels Jonah Berger, Raghuram IyengarClass Dismissed!

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