Critical Thinking

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Critical Thinking

  1. 2. CRITICAL THINKING
  2. 3. <ul><li>As Teachers, we are asked to be critical and creative because these are vital parts of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>However, critical and creative thinking was rarely taught to us while in training </li></ul>
  3. 4. Do you know that… <ul><li>Albert Einstein was 4 years old before he could speak and 7 before he could read? </li></ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s music teacher once told him, “As a composer, you are hopeless?” </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill failed in the 6 th grade? </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton did poorly in grade school? </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison’s teacher told him that he was too stupid to learn anything? </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Do you recognize these people? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you consider them famous for their critical and creative thinking skills? </li></ul><ul><li>They seemed to have problems when they were in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps their being critical and creative thinkers got them into trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that their teachers imposed so many unnecessary restrictions on their natural behavior that hampered critical thinking. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Some rules of order and conformity in the classroom often stifle the critical thinking of young people. </li></ul><ul><li>As teachers, we must perceive all learners as potentially critical and creative thinkers. </li></ul>
  6. 7. What is THINKING SKILL? <ul><li>Thinking is beyond the level of repeating or memorizing information. Thinking is processing experiences by editing or rearranging them (Matthew Lipman) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is bringing intellectual faculties into play . It requires one to ponder, reflect or weigh a matter mentally (Webster’s Dictionary) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is a complex act comprising knowledge, attitudes and skills that allow the individual to shape his/her environment more effectively than intuition alone (Orlich) </li></ul>
  7. 8. There are really many views on thinking. For you, who are looking for ways to motivate students to think… <ul><li>Thinking is the act of withholding judgment in order to use… </li></ul>new information, concepts or conclusions. experience knowledge
  8. 9. <ul><li>Make lesson plans that include thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask thought-provoking questions such as “How do you know?” “Why…?” </li></ul><ul><li>Call on students to tell what they understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect each lesson to students’ experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to summarize the lesson creatively. </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is Critical Thinking? <ul><li>It is the art of taking charge of the power of your own mind. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about living and learning what empowers you and your students In practical ways. </li></ul><ul><li>It is thinking beyond basic recall of information. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves asking questions to establish ideas, create new ideas, solve problems and make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in the transformation of information into something that can be used to anticipate the future. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires choices and responsibility. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Asking question is the heart of critical thinking. <ul><li>Questioning to develop critical thinking requires students to; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise issues; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover ideas and things; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursue problematic areas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek clarity and relevance of ideas; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find evidence and make conclusions. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. An individual who thinks critically… <ul><li>Is open minded; </li></ul><ul><li>Studies the whole situation; </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for varied choices; </li></ul><ul><li>Uses credible sources; </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a position and justifies it; and </li></ul><ul><li>Is sensitive to the feelings of others. </li></ul>
  12. 13. What is the difference between critical thinking and ordinary thinking ? <ul><li>Believing </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Preferring </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Associating concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating principles </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesizing </li></ul><ul><li>Offering opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Offering opinions with reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Making judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Making judgment with criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Supposing </li></ul>
  13. 14. PRACTICAL APPROACH TO CRITICAL THINKING
  14. 15. How can critical thinking be taught? <ul><li>Recall is the simplest action. You recall facts, describe objects and events or put them into sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Noting similarities is the action to compare the likeness of situations, ideas, people, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Noting differences is the action to examine what is different about ideas, events or objects by contrasting them. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying cause and effect is the action to analyze the reasons, consequences or make predictions. </li></ul>
  15. 16. How can critical thinking be taught? <ul><li>Forming generalizations is the action of grouping facts or events into patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Substantiation is the action that moves from general to specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is the action that judges things or events. Based on the facts gathered, you determine the value of an idea or concept. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Example Modules: CLASSIFICATION IDENTIFYING PATTERNS / RELATIONSHIPS REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS
  17. 18. CLASSIFICATION
  18. 19. DISCRETE classification: YELLOW RED BLUE COLOR
  19. 20. OVERLAPPING classification: BIG RED CIRCLE
  20. 21. HIERARCHY SMALL CIRCLE YELLOW
  21. 22. HOW MANY BEADS ARE THERE INSIDE THE BOX? 12
  22. 23. IDENTIFYING PATTERN/RELATIONSHIPS 1 5 10
  23. 24. COUNT THE SQUARES! 204
  24. 25. REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS <ul><li>NETWORK TREE </li></ul>
  25. 26. REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS <ul><li>CYCLE </li></ul>
  26. 27. REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS <ul><li>COMPARISON </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>TIMELINE </li></ul>REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS
  28. 29. <ul><li>PROBLEM -SOLUTION -EFFECTS </li></ul>REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS
  29. 30. REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS <ul><li>SPIDER WEB </li></ul>
  30. 31. REPRESENTING RELATED CONCEPTS <ul><li>MATRIX OR GRID </li></ul>
  31. 32. Here are some guidelines for teaching critical thinking: <ul><li>Ask students to explain and clarify terms in their own words. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask thought-provoking questions such as Why? How? What makes you think so? How do they compare? Which would be more useful? </li></ul>
  32. 33. Here are some guidelines for teaching critical thinking: <ul><li>Make judgments based on credible sources, such as, experts, agreement between sources, reputable individuals, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems to make conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use variety of teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skill such as problem solving and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage group problem solving and decision making. Your students will enjoy learning together. </li></ul>
  33. 34. What are the values of teaching critical thinking? <ul><li>1. the more the students use it, the better critical thinkers they become. </li></ul>2. The more quality questions they ask, the better critical thinkers they become. 3. When students ask questions, there is interaction of new information with what they already know so new knowledge is created. 4 . This newly created knowledge helps them become more effective persons and hopefully assists them in realizing their life goals.

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