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Beekman5 std ppt_10

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10 Inside the Internet and the Web
  • 2. Topics
    • The Internet: A Network of Networks
    • Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
    • Inside the World Wide Web
    • The Evolving Internet
    “ It’s a bit like climbing a mountain. You don’t know how far you’ve come until you stop and look back.” Vint Cerf
  • 3.
    • The Internet is an interconnected network of thousands of networks linking academic, research, government, and commercial institutions.
    The Internet: A Network of Networks
  • 4.
    • The Internet provides scientists, engineers, educators, students, business people, and others with a variety of services such as:
      • Electronic mail (send/receive mail messages)
      • Remote login (T elnet - access to other computers)
    Internet Services
  • 5. Internet Services
      • Transferring files (FTP - accessing archives of data)
      • Newsgroups (Usenet - on-line public discussions)
      • World Wide Web (a collection of multimedia documents)
  • 6. Counting Connections
    • Today, the Internet connects computers to about every country in the world. However, the Internet is:
      • growing too fast to measure its growth
      • too decentralized to quantify
      • a network with no hard boundaries
  • 7.
    • The language at the heart of the Internet is TCP/IP…
      • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
      • Allows cross-network communication
    Internet Protocols
  • 8. Internet Protocols
    • TCP breaks messages into packets
      • Each packet has all the information needed to travel from network to network
      • Host systems called Routers determine how to route transmissions
  • 9. Internet Protocols
    • IP is the address for the packets
      • Each Internet host computer has a unique IP Address
      • Each address is comprised of four sets of numbers separated by periods, such as 123.23.168.22
  • 10. Internet Addresses
    • The host is named using DNS (domain name system), which translates IP addresses into a string of names.
    “ Each person on the “Internet” has a unique e-mail “address” created by having a squirrel run across a computer keyboard.” Dave Barry
  • 11. Internet Addresses
    • Top level domains include:
      • . edu - educational sites
      • .com - commercial sites
      • .gov - government sites
      • .mil - military sites
      • .net - network administration sites
      • .org - nonprofit organizations
  • 12. Internet Addresses
    • An Internet address includes: username@hostname.sub.dom
      • username is the person’s “mailbox”
      • hostname is the name of the host computer and is followed by one or more domains separated by periods:
        • host.subdomain.domain
        • host.domain
        • host.subdomain.subdomain.domain
  • 13. Internet Addresses
    • [email_address]
    Examples: [email_address] User President whose mail is stored on the host whitehouse in the government domain User hazel_filbert at the server for Lane County, Oregon, k-12 school district
  • 14.
    • Direct (dedicated) Connection
    Internet Access Options
    • Computer has its own IP address and is attached to a LAN
    • No need to dial up
    • Files are stored on your computer
    • Response time is quick
  • 15. Internet Access Options
    • Dialup Connections
      • limited connection using a modem
      • Full access dial up uses SLIP or PPP via modem
    • Broadband Connections
    • DSL service is newer, faster, and cheaper than ISDN
    • Can share phone line with voice traffic
  • 16. Internet Access Options
    • Cable Modem Connection
      • allow Internet connections using shared TV cables
      • can exceed DSL speeds
      • Carry increased privacy and security risks
    • Satellite Connections
      • provides connections using DirecTV satellite dishes
  • 17. Internet Access Options
    • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
      • local ISPs provide connections through local telephone lines
      • national ISPs offer connections on a nationwide scale
  • 18.
    • The Internet use the client/server model for most Internet applications.
    • In the client/server model a client program asks for information, and a server program fields the request and provides the requested information from databases and documents.
    Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
  • 19.
    • An email server acts like a local post office for a particular Internet host—a business, an organization, or an ISP.
    • File servers are common within LANs, but they’re also used to share programs, media files, and other computer data across the Internet.
    Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
  • 20.
    • File transfer protocol (FTP) allows users to download files from remote servers to their computers and to upload files.
    • File compression saves storage space on disk and saves transmission time when files are transferred through networks.
    Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
  • 21.
    • An application server stores applications- PC office applications, databases, or other applications - and makes them available to client programs that request them.
    • An application server might be housed at an application service provider (ASP) - a company that manages and delivers application services on a contract basis.
    • A Web server stores Web pages and sends pages to client Web browsers.
    Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
  • 22.
    • WWW is a distributed browsing and searching system developed at CERN
    • System was designed to give Internet documents unique addresses
    • HTML language was created for encoding and displaying documents
    • Browser software was built for viewing documents from remote locations
    Inside the Web
  • 23. Inside the Web
    • Web pages are made up of text and images
    • A Web site is a collection of web pages
    • A Home page is the main entry to a Web site
    • A Web browser like Netscape Communicator or Internet Explorer allows you to explore the Web by clicking links
    Web site Jargon:
  • 24. Inside the Web Hyperlinks (links) are words or pictures that act as buttons, allowing you to go to another Web page
      • Links are typically underlined or displayed in a different color
  • 25. Inside the Web
    • More Web site Jargon
    • Links allow you to locate information without knowing its exact location (it may move from time to time)
    • Back and Forward buttons let you retrace your steps
    • Bookmarks and Favorites can be set up to mark your favorite Web locations
  • 26. Web Addresses Pronounced Earl …like the name A typical URL looks like this: http://www.prenhall.com.beekman
  • 27. Web Addresses
    • Protocol for Web pages
    • Dissecting Web Page address:
    Resource Page http:// www.vote-smart.org/ Path to the host help/database.html
  • 28. Publishing on the Web
    • An HTML document includes codes that determines the format, layout, and structure of a Web document
    HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) HTML is not WYSIWYG
  • 29. Publishing on the Web
    • This text coded as HTML …
    Appears like this on the screen …
      • <H1>Welcome to Computer Confluence</H1> <b>Publishing on the Web</b>
  • 30. Publishing on the Web
    • Alternatives to HTML…
    • Programs that convert document format features into HTML codes
      • Microsoft Word, FileMaker
    • Web authoring programs
      • HomePage, GoLive, FrontPage
  • 31. From Hypertext to Multimedia
    • Tables
    • Frames
    • Forms
    • Downloadable audio and video
      • Streaming audio and video
      • Real-time live audio or video
      • 3-D environments
    Typical Web pages can contain:
  • 32. From Hypertext to Multimedia
    • Plug-Ins are software extensions that add new features. Examples include…
    • QuickTime
    • Shockwave/Flash
    • RealPlayer
    • Acrobat
  • 33. Beyond HTML
    • Dynamic HTML:
    • adds more programming power to HTML by allowing code to automatically modify itself under certain circumstances
    JavaScript: a simple language for enhancing HTML Web pages
  • 34. Beyond HTML
    • WML
    • Wireless Markup Language helps create Web documents containing stock quotes, phone numbers, and other small nuggets of information
    • XML
    • Will replace HTML plus provide additional features and extensions
    • VRML
    • Virtual Reality Modeling Language creates 3-D virtual worlds
  • 35. Beyond HTML
    • Java
    • A full-featured, cross platform, object-oriented programming language
    • Java applets
    • Small Java programs that can be automatically downloaded onto your client computer and can run on any platform
  • 36.