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Beekman5 std ppt_08

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8 Database Applications and Implications
  • 2. Topics
    • The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics
    • Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems
    • No Secrets: Computers and Privacy
    “ The goal is information at your fingertips.” Bill Gates
  • 3.
    • Database software is…
      • application software (like word processing and spreadsheet software)
      • designed to maintain databases (collections of information)
    • A Database is…
      • a collection of information stored in an organized form on a computer
    The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics
  • 4. What Good Is a Database?
    • An electronic database allows you to:
      • store large quantities of information
      • retrieve information quickly
      • organize and reorganize information
      • print and distribute information in a variety of ways
  • 5. Database Anatomy
    • A database is a collection of one or more database files
    A file is a collection of related information (records)
  • 6.
    • A record is the information relating to one person, product, or event
    Database Anatomy A field is a discrete chunk of information in a record
  • 7. Database Anatomy
    • The view is a display of the information in fields based on a particular layout of field data.
    Form View List View
  • 8.
    • These operations are used to manipulate the information in the database:
    Database Operations
      • Import: receives data in the form of text files
      • Browse: navigates through information
      • Query : finds records that match a specific criteria
      • Sort : rearranges records (alpha or numerically)
      • Report : printout of an ordered list of records
  • 9. Special-Purpose Database Programs
    • Specialized database software is preprogrammed for specific data storage and retrieval purposes.
    • Geographical information systems (GISs): include geographic and demographic data in map form.
  • 10. Special-Purpose Database Programs
    • Personal information managers (PIMs) : an electronic organizer that is customized to fit individual needs.
  • 11.
    • A file manager is a program that allows users to work with one file at a time.
    Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems
  • 12. Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems
    • Database Management Systems (DBMS)
      • is a program or system of programs that can manipulate data in a large collection of files
      • redundant information is stored as a key field
      • different users see different points of view
      • may be interactive
  • 13. What Makes a Database Relational?
    • A database is relational when files are related to each other, such as this Student ID field in the Student file.
  • 14. Database Trends
    • Real-Time Computing
      • Allows instant access to information
    • Downsizing and Decentralizing
      • Using a client/server approach
    • Data Mining
      • Allows technology to find valuable information
  • 15. Database Trends
    • Databases and the Web
      • Information is available via a company’s Intranet and the Internet
    • Object-Oriented Databases
      • Make database construction and usage more flexible
  • 16. Database Trends
    • Multimedia Databases
      • Serve as an index for art, photographs, maps, video clips, and other media files
    • Natural Language Databases
      • Allows users to ask for data using the same language used to address humans
  • 17. The Privacy Problem
    • More than 15,000 specialized marketing databases contain 2 billion names.
    • These databases contain characteristics like age, income, religion, and even sexual preference.
  • 18. Rules of Thumb: Your Private Right
    • Your social security number is yours – don’t give it away
    • Say no to direct mail and phone solicitations, sharing of personal information, and pollsters
    • Know your electronic rights
  • 19. Big Brother and Big Business
    • Government uses record matching to locate criminals ranging from tax evaders to mass murderers.
    • Credit bureaus collect information about us and allow us to borrow money where ever we go.
  • 20. Big Brother and Big Business
    • With the increased amount of information available:
      • Data errors are common
      • Data can become nearly immortal
      • Data isn’t secure
  • 21.