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Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
Beekman5 std ppt_03
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Beekman5 std ppt_03

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  • 1. Chapter 3 Hardware Basics: Peripherals
  • 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Input: From Person to Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Output: From Pulses to People </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices: Input meets Output </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts </li></ul>“ We swim in a sea of information.” Gary Snyder, poet
  • 3. Input: From Person to Processor
  • 4. The Keyboard The most common input device is the keyboard, which is used to enter letters, numbers and special characters.
  • 5. Working with the Keyboard <ul><li>Function keys are special purpose keys whose function depends on the software being used. </li></ul><ul><li>Cursor keys are used to move the cursor up, down, left, or right. </li></ul>
  • 6. Variations on Keyboard Design <ul><li>Ergonomic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to address repetitive stress injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Folding </li></ul><ul><li>Half </li></ul>
  • 7. Pointing Devices
  • 8. Reading Tools <ul><ul><li>Optical-mark readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar-code readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic-ink character readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wand readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen scanners </li></ul></ul>Input devices “read” directly from paper and convert printed information into bit patterns that can be processed by the computer.
  • 9. Digitizing the Real World <ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video digitizers </li></ul>
  • 10. Scanners <ul><li>Scanners capture and digitize printed images. There are several types of scanners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flatbed scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet-fed scanners </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Digital Cameras <ul><li>Digital cameras capture snapshots and store them as bit patterns on disks or other storage media. </li></ul>
  • 12. Video Digitizers <ul><li>Video digitizers capture input from video sources such as video camera and convert it to a digital signal that can be stored in memory and displayed on a computer screen. </li></ul>
  • 13. Audio Digitizers <ul><li>Audio digitizers capture spoken words, music and sound effects and convert them to digitized sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>These sounds can be stored in a computer’s memory and modified with computer software. </li></ul>
  • 14. Sensing Devices <ul><li>Sensing devices are used to monitor temperature, humidity, pressure and other physical quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>The data collected provides data for use in robotics, environmental climate control, weather forecasting and other applications. </li></ul>
  • 15. Output: From Pulses to People <ul><li>Screen Output </li></ul><ul><li>Paper Output </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Output </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Other Machines </li></ul>
  • 16. Screen Output <ul><li>A monitor or video display terminal (VDT) displays characters, graphics, photographic images, animation and video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video adapter —connects the monitor to the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VRAM or video memory—a special portion of RAM to hold video images (the more video memory, the more detail of a picture displayed) </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Screen Talk <ul><li>Monitor size - measured as a diagonal line across the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Pixels (or picture element) - tiny dots that compose a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution - the number of pixels displayed on the screen (the higher the resolution, the closer together the dots) </li></ul>
  • 18. Image Quality <ul><li>Image quality is affected by resolution and color depth (or bit depth) </li></ul><ul><li>Color depth refers to the number of different colors a monitor displays at the same time </li></ul>
  • 19. Examples of Color Depth 1-bit depth 16-bit depth 8-bit depth 4-bit depth
  • 20. Monitor Classes <ul><li>CRT (cathode ray tube) </li></ul>LCD (liquid crystal display)
  • 21. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) <ul><li>The cathode ray tube has the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy response time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear image </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) <ul><li>Light-weight </li></ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul><ul><li>Flat-panel </li></ul><ul><li>Used in overhead projection panels and video projectors to project computer images </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive than CRTs </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly being seen with desktop computers </li></ul>
  • 23. Paper Output <ul><li>Printers produce paper output or hard copy </li></ul><ul><li>2 kinds of printers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-impact printers </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Impact Printers <ul><li>Line printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by mainframes to produce massive printouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to printing characters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dot matrix printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images created by a matrix of tiny dots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low print quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Non-impact Printers <ul><ul><li>A laser beam reflected off a rotating drum to create patterns of electrical charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster and more expensive than dot matrix printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-resolution output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laser Printer </li></ul>
  • 26. More on Non-impact Printers <ul><ul><li>Sprays ink onto paper to produce printed text and graphic images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prints fewer pages/minute than laser printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality color costing less than laser printer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ink-jet Printer </li></ul>
  • 27. Additional Output Devices <ul><li>Multifunction peripheral or MFP combines a scanner, printer and a fax modem. </li></ul><ul><li>A plotter is an automated drawing tool that can produce large, finely scaled engineering blueprints and maps. </li></ul>
  • 28. Output You Can Hear <ul><li>A sound card allows the PC to accept microphone input, play music and other sounds through speakers or headphones. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizers are included in sound cards and have specialized circuitry designed to generate sounds electronically. </li></ul>
  • 29. Controlling Other Machines <ul><ul><li>Robot arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone switchboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated factory equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digiscents </li></ul></ul>Output devices take bit patterns and turn them into non-digital movements.
  • 30. Rules of Thumb: Ergonomics & Health <ul><li>Choose equipment that’s ergonomically designed </li></ul><ul><li>Create a healthy workspace </li></ul><ul><li>Build flexibility into your work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Rest your eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch to loosen tight muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to your body </li></ul>
  • 31. Storage Devices: Input Meets Output <ul><li>Secondary storage devices are computer peripherals capable of performing both input and output functions </li></ul><ul><li>Information is stored semi-permanently on tape and disk drives </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic tapes and disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip, Jaz and SuperDisks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical disks </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Magnetic Media <ul><li>Magnetic tapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store large amounts of information in a small space at a relatively low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation: sequential access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used mainly for backup purposes </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Magnetic Media <ul><li>Magnetic drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks for inexpensive, portable storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disks are non-removable, rigid disks that spin continuously and rapidly thus providing much faster access than a floppy disk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable media (Zip & Jaz disks) provide high-capacity portable storage. </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Optical Media <ul><ul><li>Not as fast as magnetic hard disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive storage capacity and reliability </li></ul></ul>Optical disk drive uses laser beams to read and write bits of information on the disk surface.
  • 35. Types of Optical Media <ul><li>CD-ROM drives are optical drives that read CD-ROMs. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R are WORM media (write-once, read many). </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW can read CD-ROMs and write, erase and rewrite data onto CD-R & CD-RW disks. </li></ul><ul><li>DVD (digital versatile disks) store & distribute all kinds of data. They hold between 3.8 and 17 gigabytes of information. </li></ul>
  • 36. Solid-state Storage Devices <ul><ul><li>Compact alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No moving parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for specific applications such as storing pictures in digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to replace disk and tape storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash memory is an erasable memory chip. </li></ul>
  • 37. Ports and Slots Revisited <ul><li>The system or motherboard includes several standard ports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial Port for attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Port for attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard/Mouse Port for attaching a keyboard and a mouse </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. More on Ports and Slots <ul><li>Other ports are typically included on expansion boards rather than the system board: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Port used to plug in a color monitor into the video board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone, speaker, headphone, MIDI ports used to attach sound equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Internal and External Drives <ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot swapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD or DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disk </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Drive </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI port </li></ul>
  • 40. Expansion Made Easy <ul><ul><li>USB (Universal Serial Bus ) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high speed makes it ideal for data-intensive work like digital video </li></ul></ul></ul>With the open architecture of the PC and the introduction of new interfaces, you can hot swap devices.
  • 41. Putting It All Together with Networks <ul><li>A typical computer system might have several different input, output, and storage peripherals. The key is compatibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks blur the boundaries between computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Networked computers may have access to all the peripherals on a system. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer is, in effect, just a tiny part of a global system of interconnected networks. b </li></ul>
  • 42.  

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