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Hardware Basics: Inside The Box Chapter 2
Topics <ul><li>What Computers Do </li></ul><ul><li> Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords </li></ul><ul><li>The Computer’s Core </li>...
Thomas J. Watson, Sr.  <ul><li>The “emperor” of IBM  </li></ul><ul><li>Created a culture of invention </li></ul><ul><li>IB...
What Computers Do Receive Input Process Information Produce Output
What Computers Do Store Information
Input Devices <ul><li>The keyboard is the most common input device </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing devices like the  mouse also...
Output Devices <ul><li>Computers produce information and send it to the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>A video monitor i...
Process Information <ul><li>The processor, or central processing unit (CPU), processes information and performs all the ne...
Store Information <ul><li>Memory and storage devices are used to store information </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage is th...
Information <ul><li>Information comes in many forms </li></ul><ul><li>Computers store information in digital form  </li></...
Bit Basics <ul><li>A bit (binary digit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the smallest unit of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Bits as Numbers <ul><li>Each switch can be used to store a tiny amount of information, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An a...
Bits As Codes <ul><li>ASCII  –  American Standard Code    for Information Interchange  </li></ul><ul><li>Most widely used ...
Bits as Instruction <ul><li>The computer stores instructions as collections of bits.  For instance, 01101010 might instruc...
Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords <ul><ul><li>Byte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilobyte (KB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabytes ...
The CPU and Memory The  microprocessor  that makes up your personal computer’s  central processing unit , or CPU, is the  ...
The CPU <ul><li>The CPU: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets and executes instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performs ar...
The CPU <ul><li>The CPU is a complex collection of electronic circuits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When all of those circuits a...
Compatibility & Speed <ul><li>When purchasing a computer, selecting a CPU is very important. The two most critical factors...
Compatibility <ul><li>Software is written for a specific processor and may not be  compatible  with another CPU.  </li></u...
Speed <ul><li>A computer’s speed is determined in part by the speed of its internal  clock </li></ul><ul><li>The clock is ...
Speed <ul><li>Clock speed by itself doesn’t adequately describe how fast a computer can process words, numbers, or picture...
Speed <ul><li>Parallel processing   places multiple processors in a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Most supercomputers have m...
The Computer’s Memory <ul><li>RAM  (random access memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is used to store program instructions  an...
The Computer’s Memory <ul><li>ROM  (read-only memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information is stored permanently on a chip. ...
<ul><li>Buses  connect to storage devices in open areas in the box called bays. </li></ul>Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <u...
<ul><li>Busses also connect to  slots  inside the computer </li></ul>Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <ul><li>Sockets on the ...
Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <ul><li>Slots and ports also allow external devices called  peripherals   to be added to the...
 
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  1. 1. Hardware Basics: Inside The Box Chapter 2
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>What Computers Do </li></ul><ul><li> Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords </li></ul><ul><li>The Computer’s Core </li></ul><ul><li>The Computer’s Memory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. <ul><li>The “emperor” of IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Created a culture of invention </li></ul><ul><li>IBM remains an industry leader and innovator </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Computers Do Receive Input Process Information Produce Output
  5. 5. What Computers Do Store Information
  6. 6. Input Devices <ul><li>The keyboard is the most common input device </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing devices like the mouse also receive input </li></ul>
  7. 7. Output Devices <ul><li>Computers produce information and send it to the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>A video monitor is a common output device. </li></ul><ul><li>Printers also produce output. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process Information <ul><li>The processor, or central processing unit (CPU), processes information and performs all the necessary arithmetic calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU is like the “brain” of the computer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Store Information <ul><li>Memory and storage devices are used to store information </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage is the computer’s main memory </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage uses disks or other media </li></ul>
  10. 10. Information <ul><li>Information comes in many forms </li></ul><ul><li>Computers store information in digital form </li></ul>Text 1 2 3 Numbers Sounds Pictures
  11. 11. Bit Basics <ul><li>A bit (binary digit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the smallest unit of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can have two values: 1 or 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can represent numbers , codes , or instructions </li></ul></ul>On
  12. 12. Bits as Numbers <ul><li>Each switch can be used to store a tiny amount of information, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An answer to a yes/no question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A signal to turn on a light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger chunks of information are stored by grouping bits as units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 bits (byte) = 256 different messages </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bits As Codes <ul><li>ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange </li></ul><ul><li>Most widely used code, represents each character as a unique 8-bit code. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bits as Instruction <ul><li>The computer stores instructions as collections of bits. For instance, 01101010 might instruct the computer to add two numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Other bit instructions might include where to find numbers stored in memory or where to store them. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords <ul><ul><li>Byte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilobyte (KB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabytes (MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabytes (GB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabytes (TB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>= 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>= 1 Thousand Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>= 1 Million Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>= 1 Billion Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>= 1 Trillion Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Terms used to describe file size or memory size: </li></ul>
  16. 16. The CPU and Memory The microprocessor that makes up your personal computer’s central processing unit , or CPU, is the ultimate computer brain , messenger , ringmaster and boss . All the other components—RAM, disk drives, the monitor— exist only to bridge the gap between you and the processor. Ron White, in How Computers Work
  17. 17. The CPU <ul><li>The CPU: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets and executes instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performs arithmetic and logical data manipulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicates with the other parts of the computer system. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The CPU <ul><li>The CPU is a complex collection of electronic circuits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When all of those circuits are built into a single silicon chip, the chip is referred to as a microprocessor . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The circuit board that contains a computer’s CPU is called the motherboard or system board . </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Compatibility & Speed <ul><li>When purchasing a computer, selecting a CPU is very important. The two most critical factors are: </li></ul>Compatibility Speed
  20. 20. Compatibility <ul><li>Software is written for a specific processor and may not be compatible with another CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Every processor has a built-in instruction set or vocabulary of instructions that only the processor can execute. </li></ul><ul><li>CPUs in the same family are generally designed to be backward compatible so newer processors can process all of the instructions handled by earlier models. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Speed <ul><li>A computer’s speed is determined in part by the speed of its internal clock </li></ul><ul><li>The clock is a timing device that produces electrical pulses to synchronize the computer’s operations. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer’s clock speed is measured in units called megahertz (MHz) , for millions of clock cycles per second </li></ul>
  22. 22. Speed <ul><li>Clock speed by itself doesn’t adequately describe how fast a computer can process words, numbers, or pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is also limited by architecture and word size. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Speed <ul><li>Parallel processing places multiple processors in a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Most supercomputers have multiple processors that divide jobs into pieces and work in parallel on the pieces. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Computer’s Memory <ul><li>RAM (random access memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is used to store program instructions and data temporarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unique addresses and data can be stored in any location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can quickly retrieve information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will not remain if power goes off (volatile ) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Computer’s Memory <ul><li>ROM (read-only memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information is stored permanently on a chip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains startup instructions and other permanent data. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Buses connect to storage devices in open areas in the box called bays. </li></ul>Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <ul><li>Information travels between components through groups of wires called buses . </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Busses also connect to slots inside the computer </li></ul>Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <ul><li>Sockets on the outside of the computer called ports . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Buses, Ports, and Peripherals <ul><li>Slots and ports also allow external devices called peripherals to be added to the system (keyboard, monitor, and mouse). </li></ul><ul><li>Without peripherals , the CPU and memory are like a brain without a body. </li></ul>
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