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Transcript

  • 1. Hardware Basics: Inside The Box Chapter 2
  • 2. Topics
    • What Computers Do
    •  Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords
    • The Computer’s Core
    • The Computer’s Memory
  • 3. Thomas J. Watson, Sr.
    • The “emperor” of IBM
    • Created a culture of invention
    • IBM remains an industry leader and innovator
  • 4. What Computers Do Receive Input Process Information Produce Output
  • 5. What Computers Do Store Information
  • 6. Input Devices
    • The keyboard is the most common input device
    • Pointing devices like the mouse also receive input
  • 7. Output Devices
    • Computers produce information and send it to the outside world.
    • A video monitor is a common output device.
    • Printers also produce output.
  • 8. Process Information
    • The processor, or central processing unit (CPU), processes information and performs all the necessary arithmetic calculations.
    • The CPU is like the “brain” of the computer.
  • 9. Store Information
    • Memory and storage devices are used to store information
    • Primary storage is the computer’s main memory
    • Secondary storage uses disks or other media
  • 10. Information
    • Information comes in many forms
    • Computers store information in digital form
    Text 1 2 3 Numbers Sounds Pictures
  • 11. Bit Basics
    • A bit (binary digit)
      • is the smallest unit of information
      • can have two values: 1 or 0
      • can represent numbers , codes , or instructions
    On
  • 12. Bits as Numbers
    • Each switch can be used to store a tiny amount of information, such as:
      • An answer to a yes/no question
      • A signal to turn on a light
    • Larger chunks of information are stored by grouping bits as units
      • 8 bits (byte) = 256 different messages
  • 13. Bits As Codes
    • ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
    • Most widely used code, represents each character as a unique 8-bit code.
  • 14. Bits as Instruction
    • The computer stores instructions as collections of bits. For instance, 01101010 might instruct the computer to add two numbers.
    • Other bit instructions might include where to find numbers stored in memory or where to store them.
  • 15. Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords
      • Byte
      • Kilobyte (KB)
      • Megabytes (MB)
      • Gigabytes (GB)
      • Terabytes (TB)
    • = 8 bits
    • = 1 Thousand Bytes
    • = 1 Million Bytes
    • = 1 Billion Bytes
    • = 1 Trillion Bytes
    • Terms used to describe file size or memory size:
  • 16. The CPU and Memory The microprocessor that makes up your personal computer’s central processing unit , or CPU, is the ultimate computer brain , messenger , ringmaster and boss . All the other components—RAM, disk drives, the monitor— exist only to bridge the gap between you and the processor. Ron White, in How Computers Work
  • 17. The CPU
    • The CPU:
      • interprets and executes instructions
      • performs arithmetic and logical data manipulations
      • communicates with the other parts of the computer system.
  • 18. The CPU
    • The CPU is a complex collection of electronic circuits.
      • When all of those circuits are built into a single silicon chip, the chip is referred to as a microprocessor .
      • The circuit board that contains a computer’s CPU is called the motherboard or system board .
  • 19. Compatibility & Speed
    • When purchasing a computer, selecting a CPU is very important. The two most critical factors are:
    Compatibility Speed
  • 20. Compatibility
    • Software is written for a specific processor and may not be compatible with another CPU.
    • Every processor has a built-in instruction set or vocabulary of instructions that only the processor can execute.
    • CPUs in the same family are generally designed to be backward compatible so newer processors can process all of the instructions handled by earlier models.
  • 21. Speed
    • A computer’s speed is determined in part by the speed of its internal clock
    • The clock is a timing device that produces electrical pulses to synchronize the computer’s operations.
    • A computer’s clock speed is measured in units called megahertz (MHz) , for millions of clock cycles per second
  • 22. Speed
    • Clock speed by itself doesn’t adequately describe how fast a computer can process words, numbers, or pictures.
    • Speed is also limited by architecture and word size.
  • 23. Speed
    • Parallel processing places multiple processors in a computer.
    • Most supercomputers have multiple processors that divide jobs into pieces and work in parallel on the pieces.
  • 24. The Computer’s Memory
    • RAM (random access memory):
      • is used to store program instructions and data temporarily
      • unique addresses and data can be stored in any location
      • can quickly retrieve information
      • will not remain if power goes off (volatile )
  • 25. The Computer’s Memory
    • ROM (read-only memory):
      • information is stored permanently on a chip.
      • contains startup instructions and other permanent data.
  • 26.
    • Buses connect to storage devices in open areas in the box called bays.
    Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
    • Information travels between components through groups of wires called buses .
  • 27.
    • Busses also connect to slots inside the computer
    Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
    • Sockets on the outside of the computer called ports .
  • 28. Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
    • Slots and ports also allow external devices called peripherals to be added to the system (keyboard, monitor, and mouse).
    • Without peripherals , the CPU and memory are like a brain without a body.
  • 29.