Beekman5 std ppt_02
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Beekman5 std ppt_02






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    Beekman5 std ppt_02 Beekman5 std ppt_02 Presentation Transcript

    • Hardware Basics: Inside The Box Chapter 2
    • Topics
      • What Computers Do
      •  Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords
      • The Computer’s Core
      • The Computer’s Memory
    • Thomas J. Watson, Sr.
      • The “emperor” of IBM
      • Created a culture of invention
      • IBM remains an industry leader and innovator
    • What Computers Do Receive Input Process Information Produce Output
    • What Computers Do Store Information
    • Input Devices
      • The keyboard is the most common input device
      • Pointing devices like the mouse also receive input
    • Output Devices
      • Computers produce information and send it to the outside world.
      • A video monitor is a common output device.
      • Printers also produce output.
    • Process Information
      • The processor, or central processing unit (CPU), processes information and performs all the necessary arithmetic calculations.
      • The CPU is like the “brain” of the computer.
    • Store Information
      • Memory and storage devices are used to store information
      • Primary storage is the computer’s main memory
      • Secondary storage uses disks or other media
    • Information
      • Information comes in many forms
      • Computers store information in digital form
      Text 1 2 3 Numbers Sounds Pictures
    • Bit Basics
      • A bit (binary digit)
        • is the smallest unit of information
        • can have two values: 1 or 0
        • can represent numbers , codes , or instructions
    • Bits as Numbers
      • Each switch can be used to store a tiny amount of information, such as:
        • An answer to a yes/no question
        • A signal to turn on a light
      • Larger chunks of information are stored by grouping bits as units
        • 8 bits (byte) = 256 different messages
    • Bits As Codes
      • ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
      • Most widely used code, represents each character as a unique 8-bit code.
    • Bits as Instruction
      • The computer stores instructions as collections of bits. For instance, 01101010 might instruct the computer to add two numbers.
      • Other bit instructions might include where to find numbers stored in memory or where to store them.
    • Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords
        • Byte
        • Kilobyte (KB)
        • Megabytes (MB)
        • Gigabytes (GB)
        • Terabytes (TB)
      • = 8 bits
      • = 1 Thousand Bytes
      • = 1 Million Bytes
      • = 1 Billion Bytes
      • = 1 Trillion Bytes
      • Terms used to describe file size or memory size:
    • The CPU and Memory The microprocessor that makes up your personal computer’s central processing unit , or CPU, is the ultimate computer brain , messenger , ringmaster and boss . All the other components—RAM, disk drives, the monitor— exist only to bridge the gap between you and the processor. Ron White, in How Computers Work
    • The CPU
      • The CPU:
        • interprets and executes instructions
        • performs arithmetic and logical data manipulations
        • communicates with the other parts of the computer system.
    • The CPU
      • The CPU is a complex collection of electronic circuits.
        • When all of those circuits are built into a single silicon chip, the chip is referred to as a microprocessor .
        • The circuit board that contains a computer’s CPU is called the motherboard or system board .
    • Compatibility & Speed
      • When purchasing a computer, selecting a CPU is very important. The two most critical factors are:
      Compatibility Speed
    • Compatibility
      • Software is written for a specific processor and may not be compatible with another CPU.
      • Every processor has a built-in instruction set or vocabulary of instructions that only the processor can execute.
      • CPUs in the same family are generally designed to be backward compatible so newer processors can process all of the instructions handled by earlier models.
    • Speed
      • A computer’s speed is determined in part by the speed of its internal clock
      • The clock is a timing device that produces electrical pulses to synchronize the computer’s operations.
      • A computer’s clock speed is measured in units called megahertz (MHz) , for millions of clock cycles per second
    • Speed
      • Clock speed by itself doesn’t adequately describe how fast a computer can process words, numbers, or pictures.
      • Speed is also limited by architecture and word size.
    • Speed
      • Parallel processing places multiple processors in a computer.
      • Most supercomputers have multiple processors that divide jobs into pieces and work in parallel on the pieces.
    • The Computer’s Memory
      • RAM (random access memory):
        • is used to store program instructions and data temporarily
        • unique addresses and data can be stored in any location
        • can quickly retrieve information
        • will not remain if power goes off (volatile )
    • The Computer’s Memory
      • ROM (read-only memory):
        • information is stored permanently on a chip.
        • contains startup instructions and other permanent data.
      • Buses connect to storage devices in open areas in the box called bays.
      Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
      • Information travels between components through groups of wires called buses .
      • Busses also connect to slots inside the computer
      Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
      • Sockets on the outside of the computer called ports .
    • Buses, Ports, and Peripherals
      • Slots and ports also allow external devices called peripherals to be added to the system (keyboard, monitor, and mouse).
      • Without peripherals , the CPU and memory are like a brain without a body.