Models of communication

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types & essential features,Models of communication,Barlo's Model of Communication,transaction Model of Communication,Lasswell's Model,Schramm's Interactive Model,Sawtooth model of communication,Foulger's

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Models of communication

  1. 1. MODELS OF COMMUNICATION TYPES & ESSENTIAL FEATURES
  2. 2. ARISTOTLE’S MODEL SPEAKER ARGUMENT SPEECH LISTENERS
  3. 3. LASSWELL’S MODEL
  4. 4. SHANNON-WEAVER MATHEMATICAL MODEL INFORMATION (SOURCE) TRANSMITTER (ENCODER) CHANNEL RECEIVER (DECODER) DESTINATION NOISE (SOURCE) MESSAGE SIGNAL RECEIVED SIGNAL MESSAGE
  5. 5. SCHRAMM’S INTERACTIVE MODEL MESSAGE ENCODER INTERPRETER DECODER MESSAGE DECODER INTERPRETER ENCODER MESSAGE
  6. 6. BARLO’S MODEL OF COMMUNICATION SOURCE MESSAGE CHANNEL RECEIVER
  7. 7. TRANSACTION MODEL OF COMMUNICATION ENCODING with Language MEDIA used for Transmission COMMUNICATOR A MEDIA used for Transmission Receiving & Interpreting COMMUNICATOR B ENCODING With Language Receiving & Interpreting
  8. 8. SAWTOOTH MODEL OF COMMUNICATION PERSON 1 PERSON 1 END OF COMMUNICATION EVENT START OF COMMUNICATION EVENT
  9. 9. FOULGER’S ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION CREATORS CONSUMERS MESSAGE Using LANGUAGE Within MEDIA Learn, Socialize within Observe, Attribute & Interpret Imagine & Create Use, Invent & Involve Have perspectives of relationships with Become creators when they reply or provide feedback
  10. 10. CONCLUSION ESSENTIALS OF MODELS OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA MEDIA SOURCE RECEIVER PROCESS
  11. 11. TELECOMMUNICATION CONCEPT
  12. 12. MEANING OF TELECOMMUNICATION  French word, coined in 1994 by Edoured Estaunie, an engineer & novelist.  Combination of Greek prefix ‘tele’ meaning ‘far off’ & Latin word ‘Communicare’ meaning ‘to share’.
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION stands for  All types of Data transmission,  Data sharing between the source of data generation to the place of data receiving as its far off destination from voice to video
  14. 14. Telecommunication Act 1997  Carriage of communications by means of guided or unguided electromagnetic energy.  It is the electronic process that enables communication across distances, large & small from one sender to another.
  15. 15.  It is the process of transmitting or receiving information over a distance by any electrical or electromagnetic medium.  Information may be in the form of voice, video & data.
  16. 16.  Transmission of data & information between computer using a communication link such as standard telephone line.
  17. 17. Telecommunication involves a vast array of technologies Utilized for sending information over distances. Radio, Television, Mobiles, Landlines Satellite & Picture phones Voices & Images over internet protocols Telephony technologies, Networks & WWW (World wide web)
  18. 18. HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT  Ancient Times  1. Smoke signals  2. Relay Beacons or Fires
  19. 19. Medieval Age  Beacon Chains  Pigeons  Beating Drums  Ships flags & Semaphores, a mechanical device on a tower.
  20. 20. Modern Age  Telegraph: 1. Morse code & Signal Lamps: Optical version of the telegraph, translates dots & dashes of a Morse code. 2. Helliograph: A mirror used to reflect light to mimic the signal lamp. 3. Electrical Telegraph
  21. 21. Modern Age  Conventional Telephone: March 1876  Bell Telephone Company  First Commercial Telephone Services: 1878, 1879  Wireless Communication: 1901  Transmission of moving pictures:
  22. 22. Advanced Telecommunication Era  ARPANET: Beyond the planet.  Computer Technology & Satellite communication
  23. 23. TYPES  Broadcast Telecommunication  Point to Point Telecommunication  Multiple Telecommunication System
  24. 24. OTHER TERMS & CONCEPTS /TYPES UTILIZED IN TELECOMMUNICATION  Analog Communication  Digital Communication  Communication Networks  Communication Channels  Modulation  Telephone Communication Optic Fibres
  25. 25. COMPONENTS OF BASIC TELECOMMUNICATION  THREE ELEMENTS/ COMPONENTS 1. Transmitter: Takes information & converts into a signal. 2. Transmission Medium: Carries the signal 3. Receiver: Receives the signal & converts it back into usable information.
  26. 26. ROLE OF TELECOMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Development of Education System  Economic Integration  Cultural Development  Flow of Information in International Market  Development of Social Relationship
  27. 27. ROLE OF TELECOMMUNICATION IN EDUCATION  Teaching Learning at Home  Assistance from classmates  Distance Learning  Meeting  On-Line Learning
  28. 28. QUESTIONS 1. Discuss concept of telecommunication 2. Different types of telecommunication 3. Role of telecommunication in education with special reference to teaching & learning. 4. Role of telecommunication in national life. 5. History/ Development/ Growth of telecommunication
  29. 29. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION CONCEPT
  30. 30. CONCEPT OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION  Satellite is a solid object  which revolves around some heavenly body  due to the effect of mutual gravitational forces.
  31. 31. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION  It is carried out with the help of SATELLITES  Especially Communication Satellites.
  32. 32.  It is the communication of satellites in space with large number of earth stations on the ground.
  33. 33. A Communication Satellite is a  Microwave relay station placed in outer space.  These satellites are launched either by rockets or by the space shutters.  These are positioned 36000 Kms. Above the equator with an orbit speed that matches the earth’s rotation speed.
  34. 34. Communication Satellites are used as  Telecommunication devices besides other multidimensional uses.
  35. 35.  Introduced the idea of Satellite Communication.  He stated: “ If a satellite were positioned high enough above the equator & its speed was 1945, Arthur Clarke controlled to match that of earth’s rotation, it would appear stationary in its geostationary orbit in the sky.
  36. 36. EARLIER TIMES  LARGE SIZED ANTENAES were used because of the receipt of very weak signals.
  37. 37. PRESENT TIMES Satellites have become  stronger  Bigger &  More powerful therefore antennas used have become automatically smaller in size.
  38. 38. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OPERATES & WORKS  in the Millimeter &  In the Microwave frequency bands.
  39. 39. ACTIVE SATELLITES Active Satellites:  Complicated in structures.  Processing equipment: Transponders, which plays important role in the functioning of the Satellite.  Transponder provides amplification of the incoming signal.  It is also useful in avoiding interference between the two signals.
  40. 40. PASSIVE SATELLITES  These are relay stations in space.  These are sub-divided in 2 categories: 1. Natural Satellites: eg. The Moon. 2. Artificial satellites: eg. Rohini, Spherical balloon with metal coated plastic.
  41. 41. NATURAL SATELLITE
  42. 42. ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE
  43. 43. Order Country Date of first launch Rocket Satellite 1 Soviet Union 4 Oct 1957 Sputnik-PS Sputnik 1 2 US 1 Feb 1958 Juno I Explorer 1 3 France 26 Nov 1965 Diamant-A Astérix 4 Japan 11 Feb 1970 Lambda-4S Ōsumi 5 China 24 April 1970 Long March 1 Dong Fang Hong I 6 U K 28 Oct 1971 Black Arrow Prospero 7 India 18 July 1980 SLV Rohini 8 Israel 19 Sept 1988 Shavit Ofeq 1 — Russia[1] 21 Jan 1992 Soyuz-U Kosmos 2175 — Ukraine[1] 13 July 1992 Tsyklon-3 Strela 9 Iran 2 Feb 2009 Safir-1 Omid 10 N. Korea 12 Dec 2012 Unha-3 Kwangmyŏngsŏn g-3 Unit 2 — S.Korea 30 Jan2013 Naro-1 STSAT-2C First launch by country
  44. 44. BASICS: TERMS & VOCABULARY 1. Satellite Channels: Every satellite has 4 transponders/channels. Each of these channels can transmit one TV signal or thousands of simultaneous calls. 2. High Frequency Band: Satellite signals use C-band & KU-band.
  45. 45. 1. C-BAND  High Frequency Band ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz
  46. 46. KU-BAND  The new generation of satellite is now using a bit higher frequency ranging from 11.7 to 12.3 GHz.
  47. 47. SATELLITE DISH  It is primarily an antenna that selects & focuses the satellite signal
  48. 48. SATELLITE ANTENNA  Also known as a ‘footprint’ directs its signals to all destined reception areas on the ground in a particular shape.  The signal is strongest at the centre of that area which makes it possible to use smaller dishes from reception.  As one moves from the center, the signal diminishes in intensity, therefore large dishes are needed.
  49. 49. UPLINK & DOWNLINK UPLINK: It is a ground station that sends signal up to the satellite. DOWNLINK: The satellite changes the signal’s frequency & transmits it to downlinks. It is a ground receiving station.
  50. 50. DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE DBS  The technology of sending direct satellite signals to homes.  Satellite is strong enough to allow for the use of smaller dishes.
  51. 51. TYPES OF SATELLITES DOMSAT  Domestic Satellites are used to provide various telecommunication services such as voice, data & transmission (TV channels) within a country
  52. 52. TYPES SARSAT  This service is for search & rescue operations.  It is a polar orbiting satellite.  It orbits the earth in such a way as to cover the north & south polar regions.  They are used to provide environmental data & to help locate ships & aircrafts in distress.
  53. 53. INTERNATIONAL SATELLITES INTELSAT:  International Satellite Communication was set up in 1964 to handle the technical & administrative problems associated with a worldwide telecommunication system.  Provides global communication via 18 satellites & cover 117 member countries of N.America.
  54. 54. INTELSAT  International regions served are divided into the following regions: 1. AOR Atlantic Ocean Region 2. POR Pacific Ocean Region 3. IOR Indian Ocean Region  Satellites are positioned in geostationary orbit above the ocean where they provide a trans- communication route.  Used for domestic services within any given country
  55. 55. INSAT  Owned by India  Came into operation in 1983  Provides 3 types of communication services in the areas related with: 1. Telecommunications 2. Television & 3. Meterology
  56. 56. EUTELSAT  Owned by European Telecommunication Satellite Organization.  It represents 10 nations of the European continent.
  57. 57. ARABSAT  Owned by the Arab Satellite Communication Organization.  Provides telecommunication services to 21 Arabian countries in the following areas: 1. Television 2. Telephone 3. Telegraph 4. Data Services
  58. 58. BRAZILSAT  Owned by Brazil  Provides services in the following fields: 1. Television 2. Transmission 3. Distribution of radio programs 4. Telephone & 5. Direct broadcast for pay television
  59. 59. OPTUS  Owned by Australia & Papua New Guinea.  Uses 3 geostationary satellites.  Provides following services: 1. Television 2. Video-conferencing 3. Data & direct broadcast for pay television.
  60. 60. PALAPA  Owned by Indonesia.  Represents a system of 4 different satellites.  Provides effective communication services to the whole country.
  61. 61. Morelos  Owned by Mexico.  Provides good infrastructure for the needed communication services for the entire country.
  62. 62. Russian Satellite System  Uses 2 types of satellites for providing all essential communication services: 1. Stationary & 2. Non-stationary  Satellites of these 2 groups are called by the names: 1. GHORIZONT 2. MOLNIYA
  63. 63. Canadian ANIK Satellites  Owned by Canada.  This system involves a group of satellites.  It provides a wide variety of communication services to the entire country.
  64. 64. Intersputnik  Owned by The International Satellite Corporation of the Eastern Block Countries.  The system provides services on the lines of INTELSAT.
  65. 65. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Improved educational programs eg. EDUSAT for distance education system through A-V medium.  Primarily meant for providing connectivity to college & higher levels of education centers.  Also supports non-formal education system
  66. 66. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Broadcast communication facilities: Provides satellite based broadcast communication facilities to communicate: 1. Data 2. Video & 3. Other useful information.
  67. 67. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Development of rural & remote regions: Useful in communicating: 1. Valuable data & information with fast advancing capabilities.
  68. 68. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Social & Economic utility: Reduces social & economic cost of sharing information with others.
  69. 69. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Sharing advanced healthcare services:  Institute of Telecommunications provides substantial expertise with which one country can share advanced healthcare services with other countries to provide enhanced medical facilities to the citizens of its own country.
  70. 70. ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN NATIONAL LIFE  Entertainment:  Acts as a source of entertainment.  Broadcast signals receive signals from ground station & transmit to households for entertainment as well as other important source of information
  71. 71. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Educational Purposes:  To expand & upgrade education  To promote national integration  To create social awakening  To make people aware about health & nutrition programs.
  72. 72. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Educational Purposes:  To propagate population control programs.  To make people aware with techniques of agriculture.  To improve life of the people.
  73. 73. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING & LEARNING  Extension of school boundaries.  Integration of specialized material.  Sharing educational experiences.  First hand experiences.  Cost effective
  74. 74. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING & LEARNING INTRODUCTION  It has become a significant teaching learning technology.  Provides rich & innovative learning experiences to students of different age groups.
  75. 75. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING & LEARNING  Reception of specialized cultural & instructional programs.  Distribution of school based television programs on a satellite network  Participation in a growing teleconferencing or video conferencing activity.  Programming a special campus channel.  Interactive communication among people from different nations.
  76. 76. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 1. Broadcasting & Teleconferencing:  With the help of ISRO, Indian Space Research Organization the government has launched a series of satellites for providing audio & video broadcasting & teleconferencing services in all the corners of the country.
  77. 77. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 2.SITE: Satellite Instructional Television Experiment.  1975-76: The first attempt was made by the government of India in using satellite communication for educational purposes by launching SITE.  American Application Technology was used for the purpose.  Health, Hygiene & family planning programs were telecast directly to about 2400 Indian villages spread over 6 states.
  78. 78. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 3. Programs for Formal & Informal Education:  ISRO in 1983 established INSAT into the orbit for the Indian government which helped in the telecast of various educational programs.  Programs were produced at the AIR at Delhi, Cuttack, Hyderabad & Mumbai.  The satellites simplified the TV signal & beamed them back to earth.
  79. 79. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 4. Teacher Training through video conferencing:  In the 90s Jhabua Development Communication Project (JDCP} & Training Development Communication Channel (TDCC) further demonstrated the efficiency of tele-education.  1996-97: under the tele-SOPT program teachers of Karnataka & MP were trained through video conferencing…
  80. 80. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 4. Teacher Training through video conferencing:  During summer vacation the morning time was used for teacher training programs in the entire country.  Before the program a teacher monitor gave an introductory talk.  CET Centre for Educational Technology (NCERT) developed multimedia packages for training science teachers.
  81. 81. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 4. Teacher Training through video conferencing:  The main purpose of multimedia packages was to improve the competence of primary teachers in methodology & content part of science.
  82. 82. USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION IN INDIA 5. Programs for children & adults:  Television programs were planned in 2 ways:  1. for children  2. the other for adults.  Morning programs were of 1½ hour duration & they were designed for the children of 5 to 12 years of age.  Mother tongue.  Evening programs were for the country, in Hindi
  83. 83. LAUNCHING OF EDUSAT  20th Sept 2004: EDUSAT launched.  First Indian satellite built exclusively for serving the educational sector.  Offers an interactive satellite-based distance education.  Specially configured for the A-V Medium, using digital interactive classroom & multi centric systems
  84. 84. PURPOSE OF EDUSAT  To provide connectivity to school, college & higher levels of education & also to support non-formal education.
  85. 85. LIFE SPAN OF EDUSAT  Launched in 2004, its life is believed to be 7 years for carrying out its mission.
  86. 86. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & EDUCATION  It carries 5 Ku-band transponder providing a national beam & 6 Extended C-band transponders with national coverage beam.  It will join INSAT Indian National Satellite System that has more than 130 transponders in C-band, Extended C-band & Ku-band.
  87. 87. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & EDUCATION  It provides many telecommunication & television services.  It provides opportunities for using satellite for education in particular & for human development in general.
  88. 88. Use of EDUSAT  It may be used for: 1. Web-based education 2. Video conferencing, audio-conferencing & computer conferencing. 3. Radio & TV broadcasting 4. Interactive radio & TV 5. Exchange of data.
  89. 89. Stages of EDUSAT operation 1. Coverage of universities In the first stage of pilot projects, Ku-band channels on broad INSAT-3R which is already in orbit was used. In this phase the following were covered: 1. Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, MP. 2. Y.B. Chavan State Open University, Maharashtra 3. Visveshwaraiah Technological University, Karnataka.
  90. 90. Stages of EDUSAT operation 2. Coverage of Classrooms  In the 2nd stage EDUSAT supercraft was used with semi-operational mode with at least one uplink in each of the 5 spot beams.  Above 100 to 200 classrooms were connected to each beam.  Coverage was extended to more states & 1 national institution.
  91. 91. Stages of EDUSAT operation 3. Fully Operational Network  In the 3rd stage EDUSAT network was expected to become fully operational.  ISRO was assigned to provide managerial & technical support to the replication of EDUSAT ground systems to manufacturers & service providers.  Users were expected to provide funds for the purpose.  Ground infrastructure to meet the needs of the country were to be built.  EDUSAT to support 25 to 30 uplinks & 5000 remote terminals per uplink.
  92. 92. TYPES OF CONNECTIVITY  2 Types of connectivity are in operation for the purpose.  1. Satellite Interactive Terminals  2. Receive only Terminals.
  93. 93. Role of NCERT in using EDUSAT  CIET, Central Institute of Educational Technology has been entrusted the task of utilizing EDUSAT services for the following purposes: 1. Organizing in-service training programs through distance mode. 2. Using technique of teleconferencing for direct teaching of school subjects to the students. 3. Telecasting of video programs on National Network of Doordarshan & Gyan Darshan.
  94. 94. Satellite Communication System of CIET (NCERT) Satellite EDUSAT Mini Hub at NCERT CIET Delhi Teaching End Connected with MINI HUB 624 Kbps Classroom I Classroom 50 Classroom 100
  95. 95. MERITS OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 1. Data communication: capable of enormous amount of data communication. 2. Large coverage 3. Detection of errors 4. Transmission costs
  96. 96. LIMITATIONS / DEMERITS 1. Effect of weather 2. Inadequate security 3. Transmission delay 4. High cost
  97. 97. QUESTIONS  Concept?  Basics/fundamentals?  Role national life?  Educational purposes?  Role in teaching & learning?  Use for education in India?  What is EDUSAT? Its utility in education & role of NCERT in utilizing its services?  Essentials involved in the satellite communication system?  Short notes: INTELSAT, DOMSAT, SARSAT
  98. 98. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EDUCATION
  99. 99. INTRODUCTION  Latest concept in technology of education.  Initially developed in the Industry & management.  Historically: World war II as a result of research & development in problem- solving, efficiency, analysis & operational planning.
  100. 100. SYSTEMS APPROACH  It is an operational planning concept, borrowed from engineering sciences & cybernetics which deals with self regulating & self-sustaining systems.
  101. 101. MEANING & CONCEPT  SYSTEM Refers to ‘wholeness’, inter-relationships between parts or elements & self- regulation. It signifies a holistic organization.
  102. 102. DEFINITIONS  WEBSTER’S DICTIONARY: i. A regularly interacting or independent group of items forming a unified whole. ii. A group of objects related or interacting so as to form a unity. iii. An organized or established procedure. iv. Methodologically arranged set of ideas , principles, methods or procedures
  103. 103. ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY A set of inter-related elements
  104. 104. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION  A system is a group of components integrated to accomplish a purpose.
  105. 105. CHARACTERISTICS  General Term: Applicable to various fields including instruction & education.  Self-governing structure.  Dynamic & Integrated whole.  Systematic organization  Specified role  Effective functioning  Interaction
  106. 106. CONCLUSION  Self regulatory, self-maintaining & self- governing whole comprising of systematically organized interdependent or inter-related parts , which perform their roles to achieve the pre-determined specific objectives of the system with maximum economy, efficiency & productivity.  It refers to ordered set of ideas, theories, principles etc.
  107. 107. TYPES: 3 Broad Categories 1. Natural Systems: Solar system, Human Body system. They are creation of nature or biological mechanism. Generally their functioning is beyond the control of man. Therefore their behavior cannot be precisely predicted or determined.
  108. 108. TYPES: 2nd Category 2. Man-made systems: - Telegraph system, refreezing system, educational system. - Designed by man. - The elements are quite controlled. - Behavior can be precisely predicted & determined.
  109. 109. TYPES: 3rd Category 3. Natural & Man-made systems - Hydroelectric plants, dairy farms etc. - Combination of natural & man-made systems.
  110. 110. ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS  Social system: composed of structures, organizations & people in various roles for the achievement of a major societal function.  Cultural system: The values, beliefs & symbols found in any group are observed.  Personality system: The aim, effects & thoughts of any person are under focus.
  111. 111. 3 ASPECTS OF SYSTEM  1. PURPOSE: The first & foremost aspect of a system.  2. CONTENT: Is a must for a system to work properly.  3. PROCESS: The fulfillment of purpose on the basis of content is called the process of the system. It determines the process required & the implies the components that will make up the system.
  112. 112. EDUCATION & SUB-SYSTEMS  Education is man made synthetic organism with a specific purpose.  Its purpose is integrated with & influenced by the purpose of its supra-system.  It is society from which education receives its input, resources, constraints & evaluation of adequacy.
  113. 113. Education & Sub-Systems  Education has several sub-systems such as the educational guidance , administration & so on.  Each of these systems has its own objectives & each serves the overall purpose.  As the sub-systems function they influence the supra system.
  114. 114. Education & Sub-Systems  Education is a system in our specific sense of the term & therefore may benefit from the application of the system approach can bring to the treatment of complex problems & the design of educational programs.  It is the approach of the future.
  115. 115. SYTEMS APPROACH TO EDUCATION MEANING BY KESHAW & MICHEAN It is one of the techniques which aims at finding the most efficient & economically intelligent methods for solving the problems of education scientifically.
  116. 116. NIEL’S VIEW 1970  A particular method of exploration  to find effective ways of talking about, designing &  organizing learning situations in practice
  117. 117. BRETZ’S VIEW 1971  It involves the accurate identification of the requirements & problems,  Setting up of performance objectives,  Application of logic & analysis techniques for the problems,  The rigorous measurement of this product against the specific performance objectives.
  118. 118. KAUFMAN’S VIEW 1976  It is a tool to make the educational adventure more responsive,  Responsible,  Logical,  Orderly,  Self-correctable &  Flexible, rather than wholly intuitive, unordered, indefinable & doubtful.
  119. 119. Systems Approach is concerned with the…  Systematic planning,  designing,  Construction &  Evaluation of the education system.
  120. 120. It is applied …  To develop,  Implement &  Evaluate …Educational System …Sub-system …Curriculum or …even of designing an individual lesson
  121. 121. It is a …  Rational,  Problem-solving method of  Analyzing the educational process &  Making it more effective
  122. 122. It is the …  Process, taken as a whole,  Incorporating all its aspects & parts.  Namely Pupils,  teachers,  curriculum,  instructional material,  instructional strategies,  physical environment &  the evaluation of instructional objectives.
  123. 123. It solves…  Various educational problems  Related with the organization &  Management of the process & products of education.
  124. 124. The purpose of the system analysis …  Is to get the best environment  In the best place  For the best people  At the best time &  At the best price.
  125. 125. Applied to Education, it implies…  Standards of output performance  Planned input & processes, involving organized learning materials & methods  Monitored output in which the use is to revise, improve & evaluate the instructional system providing feedback to the learner & teacher
  126. 126. PARAMETERS TO SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EDUCATION 1. INPUT 2. PROCESS 3. OUTPUT 4. ANALYSIS & FEEDBACK
  127. 127. PARAMETERS OF A SYSTEM 2. PROCESS 4. ANALYSIS & FEEDBACK 1. INPUT 3. OUTPUT
  128. 128. INPUT  Refers to what is put into a system.  It involves i)Students (their age, minimum entry qualifications & their aptitudes & attitudes) ii) Teachers iii) Administrators iv)Curriculum v) Context vi) Instructional Material
  129. 129. Input…  Cost Factor: which is a check on inputs should also be considered in terms of its benefits.
  130. 130. It also implies:  a) Job opportunities  b) Rural or Urban local institute &  c) Hostel facilities
  131. 131. PROCESS  Refers to what goes on in a system.  It implies formal, informal & non-formal education process.  It includes i) Curriculum ii) Institute i.e. physical environment, budgeting including classrooms, furniture, library books & journals.
  132. 132. Process… iii) Facilities i.e. Laboratory, workshop, society service centre, recreational facilities, hostel facilities & iv) Teachers
  133. 133. OUTPUT  Is the product of a system.  Monitored output which is used to revise, improve & evaluate the instructional system.
  134. 134. ANALYSIS & FEEDBACK  Monitored environment provides feedback to the learner & teacher.  A system operates in a physical & social environment.  A system cannot operate beyond the limits & boundaries of its environmental context & constraints.
  135. 135. PURPOSES OR USES OF SYSTEM APPROACH IN EDUCATION 1. Improvement in instructional system 2. Utilization of resources 3. Increase in control & coordination 4. Improvement in school affairs 5. Improvement in Planning 6. Improvement in evaluation …
  136. 136. PURPOSES OR USES OF SYSTEM APPROACH IN EDUCATION 7. Improvement in co-curricular activities 8. Improvement in Training 9. Improvement in Guidance 10. Improvement in non-formal & adult education. 11. Improvement in quality of education
  137. 137. PHASES/STEPS/ OPERATIONS IN THE SYSTEM APPROACH AS APPLIED TO INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM  Watter A. Wittich & Charles F. Schuller 1. Identify the task or the problem 2. Analyze the situation 3. Arrange good management 4. Identify the objectives 5. Specify the materials & methods to be used
  138. 138. PHASES/STEPS/ OPERATIONS IN THE SYSTEM APPROACH AS APPLIED TO INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM 6. Construct a prototype design 7. Test the prototype design with a sample group 8. Analyze the results 9. Implement & recycle
  139. 139. ROBB’S VIEWS ON SYSTEM APPROACH IN INSTRICTIONAL SYSTEM 1974 Suggested that an instruction system can be employed into 3 steps, phases or operations: 1. Planning 2. Execution 3. Evaluation
  140. 140. 1. Planning Instruction System It has four steps: i. Defining objectives ii. Pre-assessment or determining the entering behavior iii. Specifying appropriate methods & strategies iv. Selecting material, aids & media
  141. 141. 2. Execution of Instruction It has 2 steps/operations i. Defining & assigning personal roles ii. Synthesizing & Implementing the instructional system
  142. 142. 3. EVALUATION OF INSTRUCTION It has 2 steps: i. Evaluation of learning outcome ii. Analysis of results & improvement of the system
  143. 143. 4. MODEL INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED BY USING THE SYSTEM APPROACH BY WITTICH & SCHULLER AREA: LEARNING TO SPEAK ENGLISH STEP 1: Identify the task or the problem STEP 2: Analyze the situation STEP 3: Arrange for good management STEP 4: Identify the objectives STEP 5: Specify the materials & methods to be used STEP 6: Construct a prototype design STEP 7: Test the prototype design STEP 8: Analyze the results STEP 9: Implement & recycle
  144. 144. CONCLUSION It can be used not only to develop an instructional system but also to different problems in other components of education like School Administration. But in developing any system the basic 9 steps are to be followed
  145. 145. Role of a Teacher in the System Approach 1. Assessment Input 2. Data collection 3. Alternatives 4. Analyzing objectives 5. Discussions
  146. 146. Role of a Teacher in the System Approach 6. Activation 7. Feedback data 8. Modification of components & processes 9. Assessment 10. Modification of system
  147. 147. PROBLEMS/DIFFICULTIES IN IMPLEMENTING SYSTEM APPROACH IN EDUCATION 1. Difficulty in leaving old methods 2. Time consuming 3. Hard work 4. Not suitable for all problems
  148. 148. CONCLUSION  Despite all difficulties or limitations the systems approach can be applied for the development of:  Educational administration & organization, exam system,  Instructional system,  Models of teacher education,  Models of curriculum & educational &  Vocational guidance
  149. 149. Conclusion  It provides opportunities to modify & improve the educational system as best as possible.  It has the full potential to provide effective control to the process & products of education by solving the various problems related to education.
  150. 150. QUESTIONS  Explain meaning of ‘system’.  Characteristics of Systems Approach.  How can this approach be applied to education. What are the parameters?  Purposes/ uses of Systems Approach.  Operation/Phases in systems approach as applied to instructional system.
  151. 151. Questions…  System Approach to Instruction.  How can different instructional activities be fitted into the system? Examples.  Discuss concept of System Approach to education. How can it be effectively used in our schools?
  152. 152. Short Notes  Meaning & Types of system  Characteristics of Systems Approach  Meaning of Systems Approach to Education  Parameters of Systems Approach in Education  Purposes/Uses
  153. 153. Short Notes…  Operations in the Systems Approach as applied to Instructional System  Role of Teacher in the Systems Approach  Problems in implementing system approach in education
  154. 154. THANK YOU HAVE A NICE DAY

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