Luigi De Martino - Secretariat of the Geneva Declaration

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Peace and Security in the Post-2015 development agenda

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  • Armed violence has long-term, far-reaching, and costly effects on development. Lethal violence in particular is associated with low attainment of human development and the MDGs.However, the issues of conflict, crime, violence as well as justice, rule of law were not included in the Millennium Development Goals. Reasons for not including the issues related to peace, conflict and violence, justice and rule of law in the MDG frame – despite being addressed in the Millennium Declaration – are multifold and include political sensitivities of states, a perception of poverty (and poverty reduction) understood as lack of income, data availability on conflict, violence, crime and justice issues. The fact that the MDG frame did not consider these issues is one of the main reasons for the launch of the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development. The GD supports a 'measurability' agenda (for example indicators relevant to the post 2015 MDG process)Evidence for programmingMonitoring and evaluation
  • In 2015 the GA will agree on a new frame for ‘development’ for the next 15 yearsThe process for setting the agenda for the post-2015 frame has begunalready in 2012. Manyactors – UN Agencies, research institutions, and CS organisations have been writing on the whatshouldbeincluded in this frame. This isverydifferent to whathappenedwith the previous MDG frame. A number of initiatives including the GD GBAV, the WB and its WDR 11, the UNODC with the World Homicide Report, the WHO with the Global Burden of Desaese have proven the measuring issues of conflict, crime and violence are possible alsoat global level.The UN has organised 11 thematic consultations and a number of national consultations. One of the thematic consultation was on disasters (Indonesia), conflict (Liberia), and violence (Panama). The UN SG alsoappointed a Panel of Eminent Personsunder the leadership of the Pres of Liberia, Indonesia and the UK Prime Minister to provide a report setting a vision for development. The HLP report has been released on 30 May thisyear.
  • The vision of the HLP on povertyisbroaderthan the previous MDG frame: «endingextreme poverty is just the beginning, not the end. It is vital, but our vision must be broader: to start countries on the path of sustainable development “ Makes the links to the Rio agenda on Sustainable Development and the ‘Sustainable Development Goals”. These two agendas will need to be reconciled (Open Working Group on SDGs is expected to provide its report in 2014).Another important element is that the post-2015 frame (HLP) is not ‘only’ for developing countries and for development aid. It has a larger ambition, to be universal.
  • I shall focus now on the HLP report, which is expected to frame the UNSG Report to be presented to the General Assembly later this summer. Peace, violence addressed with one specific goal (GOAL 11) as well as with a cross cutting approach. “The Panel strongly believes that conflict – acondition that has been called development in reverse –must be tackled head-on, even within a universal agenda.We included in our illustrative list a goal on ensuring stableand peaceful societies, with targets that cover violentdeaths, access to justice, stemming the external causesof conflict, such as organised crime, and enhancing thelegitimacy and accountability of security forces, police andthe judiciary. But these targets alone would not guaranteepeace or development in countries emerging fromconflict. Other issues, like jobs,participation in politicalprocesses and local civic engagement, and the transparentmanagement of public resources are also important.Thesecountries should also benefit from a strengthenedfinancing framework that allows resources to be allocatedto those countries most in need.”
  • The HLP report does not alwaysprovideindicators for its goals and targets, workiscurrentlyongoing to consultwithvarious experts and constituencies on targets and indicatorsbased on the HLP. (Recent meetings organised by the UN in Glen Cove and Vienna).
  • The HLP report calls for a data revolution for sustainable development, with a new international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and information available to citizens. This workshouldbetterconnectthe advances in ICTs and in application of new technologies to measurments to the traditional statistics community at both global and national levels.How much of the HLP Report willremain in 2015 isunclear. First the UNSG willpreparehis report to the UNGA, but then the nextchallenging phase willbegin, when UN Member States willstartdebating and negotiating the post-2015 frame. We know thatthere are manysensitivitiesaroundmany of the issues and countries may support other issues and agendas.
  • Luigi De Martino - Secretariat of the Geneva Declaration

    1. 1. Small Arms Survey 2012 Moving Targets Peace and Security in the Post-2015 development agenda Luigi De Martino, Secretariat of the Geneva Declaration [28 JUNE 2013]
    2. 2. Crime and security indicators for development? Why safety and security matter for development No low-income fragile or conflict-affected country has achieved a single MDG as of 2011 A country that experienced major violence during the period 1981-2005 had a poverty rate on average 21 percentage points higher than a country without violence Absence of violence / sustained peace can bring rapid gains
    3. 3. Crime and security indicators for development? International debate is very active UN, IGOs Donors Research Institutes, Think Tanks, Academia Civil society
    4. 4. Crime and security indicators for development? HLP Report:“To end extreme poverty in all its forms in the context of sustainable development “ “We are calling for a fundamental shift—to recognise peace and good governance as core elements of well-being, not an optional extra.” The Panel recommends that a limited number of goals and targets (…), and that each should be SMART: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound.
    5. 5. Crime and security indicators for development? GOAL 11. Ensure Stable and Peaceful Societies 11a. Reduce violent deaths per 100,000 by x and eliminate all forms of violence against children 11b. Ensure justice institutions are accessible, independent, well-resourced and respect due- process rights 11c. Stem the external stressors that lead to conflict, including those related to organised crime 11d. Enhance the capacity, professionalism and accountability of the security forces, police and judiciary
    6. 6. Crime and security indicators for development? GOAL 10. Ensure Good Governance and Effective Institutions 10a. Provide free and universal legal identity, such as birth registrations 10b. Ensure people enjoy freedom of speech, association, peaceful protest and access to independent media and information 10c. Increase public participation in political processes and civic engagement at all levels 10d. Guarantee the public’s right to information and access to government data 10e. Reduce bribery and corruption and ensure officials can be held accountable
    7. 7. Crime and security indicators for development? GOAL 2. Empower Girls and Women and Achieve Gender Equality 2a. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women 2b. End child marriage 2c. Ensure equal right of women to own and inherit property, sign a contract, register a business and open a bank account 2d. Eliminate discrimination against women in political, economic, and public life
    8. 8. Crime and security indicators for development? 1. End Poverty 3. Provide Quality Education and Lifelong Learning 4. Ensure Healthy Lives 5. Ensure Food Security and Good Nutrition 6. Achieve Universal Access to Water and Sanitation 12. Create a Global Enabling Environment and Catalyse Long-Term Finance 9. Manage Natural Resource Assets Sustainably 8. Create Jobs, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Equitable Growth 7. Secure Sustainable Energy
    9. 9. Criteria for Indicators • SMART: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time bound • Methodological Sound: based on agreed definitions, standards and good practices. • Feasible: measured in cost-effective and practical manner • Disaggregation: by geographical place and region, sex, income or social groups
    10. 10. GOAL 11: targets and indicators Targets Indicators Source / Data Issues Reduce and prevent violent deaths per 100,000 people by x and eliminate all forms of violence against children, women and other vulnerable groups. 1. Intentional homicide rate per 100,000 Disaggregated by age, gender, social groups, time, region, and income. Reliable measurement not possible with the current stock of data 1.2. Direct deaths from armed conflict per 100,000 1.3. Suicide rate per 100,000 1.4. Violent injury per 100,000 1.5. Percentage of citizens who feel safe 1.6. Number of children recruited by armed forces and non-state armed groups 1.7. Rape and other forms of sexual violence per 100,000 1.8. Rate of child maltreatment Enhance the capacity, professionalism, accountability of security, police and justice institutions. 2.1. Percentage of the population who express confidence in police and justice institutions Perception Survey Disaggregated by age, gender, social groups, time, region, and income. 2.2. Degree of civilian and parliamentary oversight of security institutions and budgets which are public Expert Survey 2.3. Percentage of security, police and justice personnel prosecuted over the total number of reported cases of misconduct Administrative Data 2.4. Number of police and judicial sector personnel (qualified judges, magistrates, prosecutors, defense attorneys) per 100,000 and distribution across the territory. Administrative Data (2.5. Ratio of formal cases filed to cases resolved per year) Enhance equity and social cohesion and ensure adequate formal and informal mechanisms are in place to manage disputes peacefully. 3.1. Degree of equitable access to, resourcing of, and outcomes from public services Perception and Administrative Data Disaggregated by age, gender, social groups, time, region, and income. 3.2. Level of trust and tolerance within society 3.3. Perceptions of discrimination 3.4. Degree to which there are effective formal or informal mechanisms and programs in place to prevent and resolve disputes peacefully Reduce external drivers of violence and conflict, including illicit flows of arms, drugs, finance, natural resources and
    11. 11. Towards a global measuring system? • A single Global Sustainable Development Outlook, monitoring trends and results, as well as risks that threaten to derail achievement of the targets. • A high-level global forum to review progress and challenges ahead, supported by an independent advisory committee • Reporting and peer-review at the regional level to complement global monitoring. • Develop thematic ‘multi-stakeholder partnerships’.
    12. 12. Small Arms Survey 2012 Moving Targets any questions? www.smallarmssurvey.org

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