Martin Butcher, Oxfam


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"Armed violence reduction: between disarmament and development"
Regional Review Conference on the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
Geneva, Switzerland | 8-9 July 2014

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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  • “It is like we are mopping the floor with the taps on. It takes five minutes to shower bullets but it takes three hours and immense resources to repair each person.” Dr Olive Kobusingye, Trauma Surgeon in Uganda
    Compared to peaceful countries, African countries in conflict have, on average:
    $18bn per year lost by Africa due to conflict Could be used to address HIV/AIDS in Africa
    OR provide education, water, sanitation, and address TB and malaria
    15% GDP lost per year 1.5 times average African spending on health and education combined
    Burundi spends an average of around $5 per capita on general healthcare, and it costs around $163 per firearms casualty for treatment
    Remember - Doesn’t need to be an expensive arms shipment to aggravate conflict – 1000 Kalashnikovs and bullets might only cost $750,000, yet in the wrong hands this could fundamentally destabilise a country.
  • Burundi spends $5 per person per year on healthcare, but it costs Burundi $165 on average to treat a victim of armed violence.
  • Martin Butcher, Oxfam

    1. 1. The Arms Trade Treaty Reducing Armed Violence and Supporting Development Martin Butcher, Oxfam
    2. 2. Arms transfers impact on development when they: • Aggravate armed violence (conflict, crime, serious violations of human rights) • When they undermine post-conflict peacebuilding • When they drain state resources unaccountably • When they involve corruption
    3. 3. Armed violence & Peacebuilding • 22 of 34 countries most likely to miss the MDGs are in the midst of, or emerging from, conflict • Arms Trade = $1.4 trillion, Peacekeeping = $7.1 billion • $18 bn per year taken out of Africa’s economy African conflict countries have MORE 50% - Infant deaths 15% - Undernourished people 20% - Illiteracy LESS 5 years – life expectancy 2.5 times – doctors 63% - GDP/capita
    4. 4. • Injuries are likely to be even more numerous than deaths in conflict and armed violence • About 60% of human rights violations documented by Amnesty International have involved the use of small arms and light weapons • 26 million people worldwide were internally displaced as a result of armed conflict at the end of 2008 • All of the top six countries of origin of refugees in 2008 are locations of armed conflict • Child soldiers have been actively involved in armed conflict in government forces or non-state armed groups in 19 countries or territories since 2004
    5. 5. What Will the ATT Do? • States must establish a list of controlled items • States are obliged to assess risks of IHL and human rights abuses • States are obliged to assess risks of diversion • States must report annually on Arms Trade and treaty implementation • Work with recipient States to mitigate risk • States must control brokers • Does NOT directly mention the impact on development in operative paragraphs
    6. 6. What Will This Achieve? • Improved governance • Improved security of stockpiles • Reduced risk of arms entering grey and black markets • Greater transparency
    7. 7. What Must We Do? • Robust implementation is essential to turn words into actions • Ensure meetings of States Party to the treaty contribute to norm building and reinforcement • Challenge States on dubious arms deals to strengthen norm • Work with States to ensure effective National Implementation