• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
IT Audit methodologies
 

IT Audit methodologies

on

  • 1,145 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,145
Views on SlideShare
1,145
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
173
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    IT Audit methodologies IT Audit methodologies Presentation Transcript

    • IT Audit Methodologies IT Audit Methodologies
    • IT Audit Methodologies
      • CobiT
      • BS 7799 - Code of Practice (CoP)
      • BSI - IT Baseline Protection Manual
      • ITSEC
      • Common Criteria (CC)
    • IT Audit Methodologies - URLs
      • CobiT: www.isaca.org
      • BS7799: www.bsi.org.uk/disc/
      • BSI: www.bsi.bund.de/gshb/english/menue.htm
      • ITSEC: www.itsec.gov.uk
      • CC: csrc.nist.gov/cc/
    • Main Areas of Use
      • IT Audits
      • Risk Analysis
      • Health Checks (Security Benchmarking)
      • Security Concepts
      • Security Manuals / Handbooks
    • Security Definition
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
        • Correctness
        • Completeness
      • Availability
    • CobiT
      • Governance, Control & Audit for IT
      • Developed by ISACA
      • Releases
        • CobiT 1: 1996
          • 32 Processes
          • 271 Control Objectives
        • CobiT 2: 1998
          • 34 Processes
          • 302 Control Objectives
    • CobiT - Model for IT Governance
      • 36 Control models used as basis:
        • Business control models (e.g. COSO)
        • IT control models (e.g. DTI‘s CoP)
      • CobiT control model covers:
        • Security (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability)
        • Fiduciary (Effectiveness, Efficiency, Compliance, Reliability of Information)
        • IT Resources (Data, Application Systems, Technology, Facilities, People)
    • CobiT - Framework
    • CobiT - Structure
      • 4 Domains
        • PO - Planning & Organisation
          • 11 processes (high-level control objectives)
        • AI - Acquisition & Implementation
          • 6 processes (high-level control objectives)
        • DS - Delivery & Support
          • 13 processes (high-level control objectives)
        • M - Monitoring
          • 4 processes (high-level control objectives)
    • PO - Planning and Organisation
      • PO 1 Define a Strategic IT Plan
      • PO 2 Define the Information Architecture
      • PO 3 Determine the Technological Direction
      • PO 4 Define the IT Organisation and Relationships
      • PO 5 Manage the IT Investment
      • PO 6 Communicate Management Aims and Direction
      • PO 7 Manage Human Resources
      • PO 8 Ensure Compliance with External Requirements
      • PO 9 Assess Risks
      • PO 10 Manage Projects
      • PO 11 Manage Quality
    • AI - Acquisition and Implementation
      • AI 1 Identify Solutions
      • AI 2 Acquire and Maintain Application Software
      • AI 3 Acquire and Maintain Technology Architecture
      • AI 4 Develop and Maintain IT Procedures
      • AI 5 Install and Accredit Systems
      • AI 6 Manage Changes
    • DS - Delivery and Support
      • DS 1 Define Service Levels
      • DS 2 Manage Third-Party Services
      • DS 3 Manage Performance and Capacity
      • DS 4 Ensure Continuous Service
      • DS 5 Ensure Systems Security
      • DS 6 Identify and Attribute Costs
      • DS 7 Educate and Train Users
      • DS 8 Assist and Advise IT Customers
      • DS 9 Manage the Configuration
      • DS 10 Manage Problems and Incidents
      • DS 11 Manage Data
      • DS 12 Manage Facilities
      • DS 13 Manage Operations
    • M - Monitoring
      • M 1 Monitor the Processes
      • M 2 Assess Internal Control Adequacy
      • M 3 Obtain Independent Assurance
      • M 4 Provide for Independent Audit
    • CobiT - IT Process Matrix
      • Information Criteria
        • Effectiveness
        • Efficiency
        • Confidentiality
        • Integrity
        • Availability
        • Compliance
        • Reliability
      • IT Resources
        • People
        • Applications
        • Technology
        • Facilities
        • Data
      IT Processes
    • CobiT - Summary
      • Mainly used for IT audits, incl. security aspects
      • No detailed evaluation methodology described
      • Developed by international organisation (ISACA)
      • Up-to-date: Version 2 released in 1998
      • Only high-level control objectives described
      • Detailed IT control measures are not documented
      • Not very user friendly - learning curve!
      • Evaluation results not shown in graphic form
    • CobiT - Summary
      • May be used for self assessments
      • Useful aid in implementing IT control systems
      • No suitable basis to write security handbooks
      • CobiT package from ISACA: $ 100.--
      • 3 parts freely downloadable from ISACA site
      • Software available from Methodware Ltd., NZ (www.methodware.co.nz)
        • CobiT Advisor 2nd edition: US$ 600.--
    • BS 7799 - CoP
      • Code of Practice for Inform. Security Manag.
      • Developed by UK DTI, BSI: British Standard
      • Releases
        • CoP: 1993
        • BS 7799: Part 1: 1995
        • BS 7799: Part 2: 1998
          • Certification & Accreditation scheme (c:cure)
    • BS 7799 - Security Baseline Controls
      • 10 control categories
      • 32 control groups
      • 109 security controls
      • 10 security key controls
    • BS 7799 - Control Categories
      • Information security policy
      • Security organisation
      • Assets classification & control
      • Personnel security
      • Physical & environmental security
      • Computer & network management
    • BS 7799 - Control Categories
      • System access control
      • Systems development & maintenance
      • Business continuity planning
      • Compliance
    • BS7799 - 10 Key Controls
      • Information security policy document
      • Allocation of information security responsibilities
      • Information security education and training
      • Reporting of security incidents
      • Virus controls
    • BS7799 - 10 Key Controls
      • Business continuity planning process
      • Control of proprietary software copying
      • Safeguarding of organizational records
      • Data protection
      • Compliance with security policy
    • BS7799 - Summary
      • Main use: Security Concepts & Health Checks
      • No evaluation methodology described
      • British Standard, developed by UK DTI
      • Certification scheme in place (c:cure)
      • BS7799, Part1, 1995 is being revised in 1999
      • Lists 109 ready-to-use security controls
      • No detailed security measures described
      • Very user friendly - easy to learn
    • BS7799 - Summary
      • Evaluation results not shown in graphic form
      • May be used for self assessments
      • BS7799, Part1: £ 94.--
      • BS7799, Part2: £ 36.--
      • BSI Electronic book of Part 1: £ 190.-- + VAT
      • Several BS7799 c:cure publications from BSI
      • CoP-iT software from SMH, UK: £349+VAT (www.smhplc.com)
    • BSI (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik)
      • IT Baseline Protection Manual (IT- Grundschutzhandbuch )
      • Developed by German BSI (GISA: German Information Security Agency)
      • Releases:
        • IT security manual: 1992
        • IT baseline protection manual: 1995
        • New versions (paper and CD-ROM): each year
    • BSI - Approach
    • BSI - Approach
      • Used to determine IT security measures for medium-level protection requirements
      • Straight forward approach since detailed risk analysis is not performed
      • Based on generic & platform specific security requirements detailed protection measures are constructed using given building blocks
      • List of assembled security measures may be used to establish or enhance baseline protection
    • BSI - Structure
      • IT security measures
        • 7 areas
        • 34 modules (building blocks)
      • Safeguards catalogue
        • 6 categories of security measures
      • Threats catalogue
        • 5 categories of threats
    • BSI - Security Measures (Modules)
      • Protection for generic components
      • Infrastructure
      • Non-networked systems
      • LANs
      • Data transfer systems
      • Telecommunications
      • Other IT components
    • BSI - Generic Components
      • 3.1 Organisation
      • 3.2 Personnel
      • 3.3 Contingency Planning
      • 3.4 Data Protection
    • BSI - Infrastructure
      • 4.1 Buildings
      • 4.2 Cabling
      • 4.3 Rooms
      • 4.3.1 Office
      • 4.3.2 Server Room
      • 4.3.3 Storage Media Archives
      • 4.3.4 Technical Infrastructure Room
      • 4.4 Protective cabinets
      • 4.5 Home working place
    • BSI - Non-Networked Systems
      • 5.1 DOS PC (Single User)
      • 5.2 UNIX System
      • 5.3 Laptop
      • 5.4 DOS PC (multiuser)
      • 5.5 Non-networked Windows NT computer
      • 5.6 PC with Windows 95
      • 5.99 Stand-alone IT systems
    • BSI - LANs
      • 6.1 Server-Based Network
      • 6.2 Networked Unix Systems
      • 6.3 Peer-to-Peer Network
      • 6.4 Windows NT network
      • 6.5 Novell Netware 3.x
      • 6.6 Novell Netware version 4.x
      • 6.7 Heterogeneous networks
    • BSI - Data Transfer Systems
      • 7.1 Data Carrier Exchange
      • 7.2 Modem
      • 7.3 Firewall
      • 7.4 E-mail
    • BSI - Telecommunications
      • 8.1 Telecommunication system
      • 8.2 Fax Machine
      • 8.3 Telephone Answering Machine
      • 8.4 LAN integration of an IT system via ISDN
    • BSI - Other IT Components
      • 9.1 Standard Software
      • 9.2 Databases
      • 9.3 Telecommuting
    • BSI - Module „Data Protection“ (3.4)
      • Threats - Technical failure:
        • T 4.13 Loss of stored data
      • Security Measures - Contingency planning:
        • S 6.36 Stipulating a minimum data protection concept
        • S 6.37 Documenting data protection procedures
        • S 6.33 Development of a data protection concept (optional)
        • S 6.34 Determining the factors influencing data protection (optional)
        • S 6.35 Stipulating data protection procedures (optional)
        • S 6.41 Training data reconstruction
      • Security Measures - Organisation:
        • S 2.41 Employees' commitment to data protection
        • S 2.137 Procurement of a suitable data backup system
    • BSI - Safeguards (420 safeguards)
      • S1 - Infrastructure ( 45 safeguards)
      • S2 - Organisation (153 safeguards)
      • S3 - Personnel ( 22 safeguards)
      • S4 - Hardware & Software ( 83 safeguards)
      • S5 - Communications ( 62 safeguards)
      • S6 - Contingency Planning ( 55 safeguards)
    • BSI - S1-Infrastructure (45 safeguards)
      • S 1.7 Hand-held fire extinguishers
      • S 1.10 Use of safety doors
      • S 1.17 Entrance control service
      • S 1.18 Intruder and fire detection devices
      • S 1.27 Air conditioning
      • S 1.28 Local uninterruptible power supply [UPS]
      • S 1.36 Safekeeping of data carriers before and after dispatch
    • BSI - Security Threats (209 threats)
      • T1 - Force Majeure (10 threats)
      • T2 - Organisational Shortcomings (58 threats)
      • T3 - Human Errors (31 threats)
      • T4 - Technical Failure (32 threats)
      • T5 - Deliberate acts (78 threats)
    • BSI - T3-Human Errors (31 threats)
      • T 3.1 Loss of data confidentiality/integrity as a result of IT user error
      • T 3.3 Non-compliance with IT security measures
      • T 3.6 Threat posed by cleaning staff or outside staff
      • T 3.9 Incorrect management of the IT system
      • T 3.12 Loss of storage media during transfer
      • T 3.16 Incorrect administration of site and data access rights
      • T 3.24 Inadvertent manipulation of data
      • T 3.25 Negligent deletion of objects
    • BSI - Summary
      • Main use: Security concepts & manuals
      • No evaluation methodology described
      • Developed by German BSI (GISA)
      • Updated version released each year
      • Lists 209 threats & 420 security measures
      • 34 modules cover generic & platform specific security requirements
    • BSI - Summary
      • User friendly with a lot of security details
      • Not suitable for security risk analysis
      • Results of security coverage not shown in graphic form
      • Manual in HTML format on BSI web server
      • Manual in Winword format on CD-ROM (first CD free, additional CDs cost DM 50.-- each)
      • Paper copy of manual: DM 118.--
      • Software ‚BSI Tool‘ (only in German) : DM 515.--
    • ITSEC, Common Criteria
      • ITSEC: IT Security Evaluation Criteria
      • Developed by UK, Germany, France, Netherl. and based primarily on USA TCSEC (Orange Book)
      • Releases
        • ITSEC: 1991
        • ITSEM: 1993 (IT Security Evaluation Manual)
        • UK IT Security Evaluation & Certification scheme: 1994
    • ITSEC, Common Criteria
      • Common Criteria (CC)
      • Developed by USA, EC: based on ITSEC
      • ISO International Standard
      • Releases
        • CC 1.0: 1996
        • CC 2.0: 1998
        • ISO IS 15408: 1999
    • ITSEC - Methodology
      • Based on systematic, documented approach for security evaluations of systems & products
      • Open ended with regard to defined set of security objectives
        • ITSEC Functionality classes; e.g. FC-C2
        • CC protection profiles
      • Evaluation steps:
        • Definition of functionality
        • Assurance: confidence in functionality
    • ITSEC - Functionality
      • Security objectives (Why)
        • Risk analysis (Threats, Countermeasures)
        • Security policy
      • Security enforcing functions (What)
        • technical & non-technical
      • Security mechanisms (How)
      • Evaluation levels
    • ITSEC - Assurance
      • Goal: Confidence in functions & mechanisms
      • Correctness
        • Construction (development process & environment)
        • Operation (process & environment)
      • Effectiveness
        • Suitability analysis
        • Strength of mechanism analysis
        • Vulnerabilities (construction & operation)
    • CC - Security Concept
    • CC - Evaluation Goal
    • CC - Documentation CC Part 1 Introduction and Model
      • Introduction to Approach
      • Terms and Model
      • Requirements for Protection Profiles (PP) and Security Targets (ST)
      CC Part 2 Functional Requirements
      • Functional Classes
      • Functional Families
      • Functional Components
      • Detailed Requirements
      CC Part 3 Assurance Requirements
      • Assurance Classes
      • Assurance Families
      • Assurance Components
      • Detailed Requirements
      • Evaluation Assurance Levels (EAL)
    • CC - Security Requirements
      • Functional Requirements
      • for defining security behavior of the IT product or system:
        • implemented requirements
        • become security functions
      • Assurance Requirements
      • for establishing confidence in Security Functions:
        • correctness of implementation
        • effectiveness in satisfying objectives
    • CC - Security Functional Classes Name Audit Communications Cryptographic Support User Data Protection Identification & Authentication Security Management Privacy Protection of TOE Security Functions Resource Utilization TOE (Target Of Evaluation) Access Trusted Path / Channels Class FAU FCO FCS FDP FIA FMT FPR FPT FRU FTA FTP
    • CC - Security Assurance Classes Name Configuration Management Delivery & Operation Development Guidance Documents Life Cycle Support Tests Vulnerability Assessment Protection Profile Evaluation Security Target Evaluation Maintenance of Assurance Class ACM ADO ADV AGD ALC ATE AVA APE ASE AMA
    • CC - Eval. Assurance Levels (EALs) *TCSEC = “Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria” --”Orange Book” Name Functionally Tested Structurally Tested Methodically Tested & Checked Methodically Designed, Tested & Reviewed Semiformally Designed & Tested Semiformally Verified Design & Tested Formally Verified Design & Tested EAL EAL1 EAL2 EAL3 EAL4 EAL5 EAL6 EAL7 *TCSEC C1 C2 B1 B2 B3 A1
    • ITSEC, CC - Summary
      • Used primarily for security evaluations and not for generalized IT audits
      • Defines evaluation methodology
      • Based on International Standard (ISO 15408)
      • Certification scheme in place
      • Updated & enhanced on a yearly basis
      • Includes extensible standard sets of security requirements (Protection Profile libraries)
    • Comparison of Methods - Criteria
      • Standardisation
      • Independence
      • Certifiability
      • Applicability in practice
      • Adaptability
    • Comparison of Methods - Criteria
      • Extent of Scope
      • Presentation of Results
      • Efficiency
      • Update frequency
      • Ease of Use
    • Comparison of Methods - Results CobiT 3.4 3.3 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.1 1.9 3.0 3.1 2.3 Standardisation Independence Certifyability Applicability in practice Adaptability Extent of Scope Presentation of Results Efficiency Update frequency Ease of Use BS 7799 3.3 3.6 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.2 2.8 2.4 2.7 BSI 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.1 3.3 2.7 2.6 3.0 3.4 2.8 ITSEC /CC 3.9 3.9 3.7 2.5 3.0 2.6 1.7 2.5 2.8 2.0 Scores between 1 (low) and 4 (high) - Scores for CobiT, BS7799, BSI from ISACA Swiss chapter; score for ITSEC/CC form H.P. Winiger
    • CobiT - Assessment
    • BS 7799 - Assessment
    • BSI - Assessment
    • ITSEC/CC - Assessment
    • Use of Methods for IT Audits
      • CobiT: Audit method for all IT processes
      • ITSEC, CC: Systematic approach for evaluations
      • BS7799, BSI: List of detailed security measures to be used as best practice documentation
      • Detailed audit plans, checklists, tools for technical audits (operating systems, LANs, etc.)
      • What is needed in addition:
        • Audit concept (general aspects, infrastructure audits, application audits)
    • Herzlichen Dank für Ihr Interesse an IT Audit Methodologies