Wiley 2014   ch 4 pt 2
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Wiley 2014 ch 4 pt 2



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Wiley 2014   ch 4 pt 2 Wiley 2014 ch 4 pt 2 Presentation Transcript

  •  Chapter 4 Part 2
  •  Decreased oxygen supply during contractions is termed anoxia — insufficient oxygen to fetus/newborn  Noradrenaline Stress hormone secretion protects from oxygen deficiency, prepares infant for birth.  Vernix (skin grease) protects against heat loss.
  •  Soon after birth the child must take a first breath  Lungs filled with fluid that is rapidly expelled  The baby’s system must adjust to getting oxygen independently rather than from the mother.
  •  Prematurity and Birth Weight  Premature or preterm infant: an infant born before 37 weeks’ gestational age  Gestational age: age as measure in weeks from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual cycle
  •  Low birth weight (LBW): birth weight below 5 lbs 8 oz.  Very low birth weight (VLBW): birth weight below 3 lbs 5 oz.  Extremely low birth weight (ELBW): birth weight below 2 lbs 3 oz.
  •  Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): hospital unit that specializes in the treatment of at-risk newborns  Incubator: a heat- controlled unit for preterm infants
  •  More common in multiple-birth pregnancies  Mothers who have a history of miscarriages  Mothers who have had previous premature births  Mothers with high blood pressure, diabetes, clotting disorders, obesity, infections during pregnancy, and alcohol, nicotine, or drug use
  •  Prematurity is the leading cause of death in newborns; complications may include:  Chronic illness  Developmental delays  Attention-deficit disorder  Physical and behavioral problems
  •  Individualized Developmental Care: care that is sensitive to the particular status and needs of each infant  Kangaroo care: an intervention often used with preterm newborns in which the newborn is placed in skin-to-skin contact on the mother’s breast to promote thermal regulations, breastfeeding, and bonding
  •  Infant mortality rate: the overall death rate among babies during their first year  Neonatal mortality rate: the death rate among newborns; often used as an indicator of general maternal and newborn health
  •  Anoxia: lack of oxygen  Apgar score: assesses the condition of newborn infants; it measures respiratory effort, heart rate, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color  Screening tests: tests designed to identify certain harmful or potentially fatal disorders that are not otherwise apparent at birth.
  •  NBAS: a neurobehavioral assessment scale that describes infants’ functioning in seven key areas:  Habituation  Orientation  Motor activity  Range of state  Regulation of state  Autonomic stability  Reflexes
  •  Reflexes: unlearned involuntary movements or actions that are controlled by neural structures below the level of the cerebral cortex  Rooting reflex: The head turns toward gentle stimulation of the skin at the corner of the mouth.  Sucking reflex: When a finger is placed in the infant’s mouth with the pad toward the palate, the baby sucks rhythmically.
  •  Moro reflex: often called the startle reflex; the baby arches his back, flings arms outward, and stretches his legs outward, then closes his arms back in toward his body.  Grasping reflex: elicited by placing pressure on the baby’s palms with your fingers; his fingers will flex around the finger in a grasp-like movement.
  •  Stepping reflex: When the baby is held under the arms in a standing position on a flat surface, she is able to support her weight and take a few steps forward; also called the walking reflex.  Crawling reflex: When the infant is placed on her stomach, her legs and arms move in a crawling motion.  Babinski reflex: When the sole of the baby’s foot is stroked from toe to heel, the toes fan out and curl, and the foot twists inward.
  • What Can Newborns See?  Visual acuity: The ability to see detail clearly  Newborns can focus on objects that are between 10 and 12 inches away.  They can track moving objects.  They especially like faces.  They prefer curves to straight lines.  They attend most to high contrast.
  •  Newborns can learn to identify a face in eight-tenths of a second.  Preference for the human face suggests that nature has programmed humans for social contact.
  •  Young infants can hear people talk to them and prefer their mother’s voice.  Newborns can turn to and locate a sound.  Child-directed speech: a style of speech typically used with infants, characterized by a higher-than- normal pitch, exaggerated intonation and rhythm, and simplified structure; also called motherese or parentese.
  •  Touch is critical for newborn development.  Massaging newborns lowers stress levels and assists weight gain by triggering hormones, which helps them absorb their food.  Touch can alleviate pain in newborns.
  •  The newborns’ sense of smell is as good as that of an adult; they can recognize the smell of their mother.  Newborns have a well-developed sense of taste, which began in the womb; the amniotic fluid contains a range of tastes that reflect the mother’s diet.
  •  The Parent–Infant Bond  Bonding theory: a theory suggesting that the period immediately after delivery is a sensitive one in the development of a close emotional bond between mother and child  Bonding is much more flexible than was first believed.
  •  Breast milk generally offers the best nutrition for babies.  Colostrum: a precursor to mature breast milk that consists primarily of enzymes, anti- infective agents, hormones, and growth factors  Benefits both mother and baby
  • ‘Baby Blues’ Begins days after birth; can last months Lasts 1–2 weeks without treatment Postpartum depression Major depressive episode: feelings of anxiety, depression, and despair Gets worse without treatment