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Wiley 2014   ch 4 pt 1
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Wiley 2014 ch 4 pt 1


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  • 1. Chapter 4
  • 2.  What happens during labor and delivery, and how do the different approaches to childbirth affect these processes?  What are the long-term effects of preterm birth on the infant and on the infant’s family, and what kinds of intervention can promote the development of preterm infants?  What can newborns do?  What are the developmental challenges facing the newborn?
  • 3.  Birth preparation classes: courses designed to increase the confidence of women in their ability to give birth and to educate them on coping strategies for childbirth  Birth plan: a written outline of parents’ wishes for labor and birth, intended to help health care providers know what parents want and expect
  • 4. • Maternal Blood Serum Analysis • Ultrasound • Amniocentisis • Chorionic Villus Sampling
  • 5. Ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves to view the baby while it is still developing inside the uterus. It has been used for over 40 years and is fairly safe for both mother and baby.
  • 6. • A sample of the fluid around the baby is collected and analyzed for chromosomal defects • Risk is minimal, however there is a risk of miscarriage. Especially if the mother exerts herself soon after the
  • 7. • Similar to Amniocentesis, however instead of fluid, a sample of the placenta is taken and analyzed • Can be performed earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis • Minimal risk but some chance of miscarriage because of the invasive nature of the procedure
  • 8.  Oxytocin: a hormome secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the uterus to contract  Stage 1 - Dilation: begins with the start of regular contractions and ends when the cervix is completely open  Lasts about 6 – 12 hours for first births and 6 – 7 hours for subsequent births  Transition: the most painful phase of stage 1 labor lasting between 30 minutes to an hour or two
  • 9.  Stage 2 – Descent and Birth: begins when the cervix is completely dilated and ends when the baby is born  Contractions produce the urge to push, which helps the baby descend though the birth canal  May last from 10 minutes to several hours  Stage 3 – Delivery of the placenta  Very brief. Lasts from 5 to 30 minutes
  • 10. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Dilation Descent and Birth Delivery of Placenta
  • 11.  Used to induce labor or to speed up delivery  Can make contractions more intense and uncomfortable  Prostin gel, Prepidil , and Cervidil  Misoprostal  A ulcer treatment that also can induce labor in a more comfortable way than Petosin.
  • 12. A. Blocks nerve signals and reduces pain B. Gets more oxygen to the fetus C. Indices labor and speeds up delivery D. Cures Post-Partum depression Answer Now 60
  • 13.  Cultural differences: Some cultures believe that childbirth pain is expected and normal, so pharmaceutical pain relief is inappropriate.  Japanese believe the pain will increase love for the child.  Vietnamese use less pain relief and more self- control, trying not to express their pain.
  • 14.  Analgesics: drugs used to relieve pain and promote relaxation  Anesthetics: drugs that block sensation  General anesthetics: drugs causing total loss of both sensation and consciousness; are rarely used  Epidural anesthesia: local anesthetic that blocks sensation to only part of the body
  • 15.  Birth center: facilities typically established in or near conventional labor wards for the care of pregnant women who require little or no medical intervention during birth  Homelike environment  Staffed by midwives or nurse-midwives
  • 16.  Natural childbirth: childbirth that takes place without the use of anesthetics or other interventions  Water birth: method in which the mother sits in a tub of warm water and gives birth; believed to be less painful and more relaxing  Doula: a nonmedical professional who provides women with physical and emotional assistance before, during, or after childbirth
  • 17.  Assisted vaginal delivery: delivery done when spontaneous vaginal delivery is not possible. Forceps and vacuum extraction are the most common forms. Also called instrumental delivery.  Induced labor: artificial start of labor with the use of physical stimulation and drugs  Cesarean delivery: surgical delivery sometimes necessary for safety of mother and baby
  • 18.  Baby removed from uterus through incision in abdomen when  Baby is in breech or crosswise position  Head too large for mother’s pelvis  Vaginal bleeding has occurred in pregnancy  29.1% of U.S. births are C- sections