Wiley 2014 ch 10


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Wiley 2014 ch 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10
  2. 2.  What processes do young children develop to regulate their emotions?  How do young children view themselves?  Why do some young children have good peer relationships, while others have poor ones?  During early childhood, how do children change in the way they view right and wrong and what is fair and unfair?  What parenting practices support positive psychosocial development in young children?
  3. 3.  Challenges involve the ability to regulate emotions  Positive development requires being able to both recognize and regulate emotions
  4. 4.  Erik Erikson: Initiative versus guilt  Initiative: Trying new activities; developing new friendships  Positive emotions: Pride, happiness  Negative emotions: Anger, guilt
  5. 5.  Self-Concept: Individual’s view of self in terms of traits, personality, values  Self-representation: How children describe themselves (usually in positive ways)  Self-esteem: Judgments about one’s own worth  Inflated self-esteem as a result of lacking the ability to make social comparisons; leads to overestimation of abilities
  6. 6.  Brain maturation is related to self-representation; experience also plays a role  Left hemisphere: Most active in tasks involving self-representation  Right hemisphere: Most active in tasks involving comparisons of self to others
  7. 7.  Sex differences: Biological differences  Gender differences: Social/cultural differences in acceptable behaviors for each sex  Gender scheme: Behaviors associated with being a particular sex (not inborn)  Gender constancy: The idea that an individual’s gender does not change
  8. 8.  Gender Stereotypes: Constructed mental models of behaviors and activities of each sex based on socially approved attitudes about appropriate behaviors, dress, and so on, for males and females (social and cultural)  Affect children’s playmates, toy selection, colors, textures, and play activities
  9. 9.  Play is a primary activity for young children  Promotes learning from others and the development of friendships  Exploratory, intrinsically motivated, freely chosen, occurs when child feels psychologically safe and secure
  10. 10.  Parallel Play: Playing near another child engaged in same type of activity  Associative Play: Engaging in exchange of toys; communicating with others; engaged in different pursuits  Cooperative Play: Working together toward a common goal  Symbolic Play: Using an object to stand for another object  Sociodramatic Play: Acting out of familiar adult roles
  11. 11.  Children choose friends who are similar to them in age, sex, interests, and behavior  By age 3, children express preferences for playmates  By age 5, 75% have a “best friend”
  12. 12.  Popular: Children liked by many others  Rejected: Children disliked as playmates by others  Neglected: Not liked or disliked by others
  13. 13.  1975 federal legislation to ensure children with disabilities in United States would receive education needed from birth through adulthood  Mandates inclusion beginning at age 3  Inclusive settings: Includes both those typically developing and those with disabilities
  14. 14.  Prosocial behaviors: Helping others without obvious benefit to oneself (empathy, sympathy)  Empathy: “Affective state that stems from apprehension or comprehension of another’s emotional state or condition”  Empathy requires an emotional response to another, the ability to take the perspective of another, and emotional regulation
  15. 15.  Moral development: Describes how children acquire standards of behavior that are considered right and wrong in society; standards of what is ethical, fair, and just
  16. 16.  Moral transgressions: Actions or behaviors that cause harm to another person  Conventional transgressions: Actions or behaviors that violate a notion of politeness or appropriate behaviors (social norms)
  17. 17.  Heteronomous orientation: Young child’s view that moral rules of society are ready- made  Autonomous orientation: Children’s understanding that moral rules are established by people and can change over time
  18. 18.  Preconventional morality: Earliest stage; focus on obeying rules to get rewards or to avoid punishment; exchange of favors with others for benefit  Focused on needs of self, not on needs of others
  19. 19.  Distributive justice: How objects, rewards, and penalties can be distributed fairly  Young children’s views are based on their own desires  Often these views are due to egocentrism – the tendency for young children to consider only their perspective
  20. 20.  Authoritarian: Parenting that attempts to control children through coercive demands and punishment; accompanied by little warmth or emotional support  Permissive: Parenting that places few demands or limits on children; provides warmth and emotional support
  21. 21.  Uninvolved: Parenting that places few demands on children; provides little or no warmth or emotional support  Authoritative: Parenting that places demands on children through reasoning over punishment; provides warmth and emotional support
  22. 22.  A critical concern in the United States  Abuse may involve physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse  Neglect may involve physical neglect, medical neglect, educational neglect, and emotional neglect
  23. 23.  Biological : Involves levels of a hormone, cortisol, that is increased in response to stress  Social : Difficulties in relationships with peers  Emotional : More likely to respond with hostile aggression
  24. 24.  Suffer emotionally; show unusual responses to peers  At risk for poor peer relationships  Do poorly on tasks involving theory of mind  Stress alters brain development  Difficulty in regulating emotions  Behavioral problems
  25. 25.  Studies found children who have been adopted have an unusually high rate of difficulties  Difficulties include medical, developmental, behavioral, and emotional  Early deprivation affects children’s abilities to regulate their emotions  Deprivation “wires” the brain differently
  26. 26. Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems 25% of children from divorced families show serious emotional problems compared to only 10% of children from intact, never divorced families Type of family 20 DivorcedIntact, never divorced 10 0 30 Percentofchildrenshowing seriousemotionalproblems
  27. 27.  Explain the separation  Explain it is not the child’s fault  Explain it takes time to feel better  Keep door open for more discussion  Provide as much continuity as possible  Provide support for self and children