Manipulative Participation •  Participation is simply a pretense • Participation occurs through representation on an advis...
Passive Participation <ul><li>People participate by being told what has been decided or has already happened </li></ul><ul...
Consultation <ul><li>People are consulted or asked questions; experts define problems and control information gathering </...
Participation for Material Assets <ul><li>People participate by contributing resources (such as knowledge or labor) in ret...
Functional Participation <ul><li>Participation is seen as a means to achieve project goals </li></ul><ul><li>People may fo...
Interactive Participation <ul><li>People participate in joint analysis, development of an action plan, and formation/stren...
<ul><li>Multiple perspectives are sought and learning incorporated into process </li></ul><ul><li>Groups exercise control ...
Self-mobilization <ul><li>• People participate by taking initiatives independent of external agents </li></ul><ul><li>They...
Women’s participation will be promoted when women have been included in: <ul><ul><ul><li>defining the problem being addres...
Can  women participate? Barriers: <ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s lack of authority in households, organizations and communities <...
Will  women participate? Barriers <ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of benefits from participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
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PowerPoint Four

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PowerPoint Four

  1. 1. Manipulative Participation • Participation is simply a pretense • Participation occurs through representation on an advisory board, but these representatives but have no power • Women may be included in token ways, in order to ‘fill a quota’
  2. 2. Passive Participation <ul><li>People participate by being told what has been decided or has already happened </li></ul><ul><li>The power rests with ‘experts.’ It is generally assumed that experts know what women need or want </li></ul>
  3. 3. Consultation <ul><li>People are consulted or asked questions; experts define problems and control information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals are not obliged to act on people’s views; they may consult with ‘women’s representatives’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Participation for Material Assets <ul><li>People participate by contributing resources (such as knowledge or labor) in return for cash or other material benefits </li></ul><ul><li>People have no stake when the project ends so that sustainability is poor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functional Participation <ul><li>Participation is seen as a means to achieve project goals </li></ul><ul><li>People may form groups to meet predetermined objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Project dynamics may be interactive and there may be shared decision-making, but major decisions tend to be made by the external agency </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interactive Participation <ul><li>People participate in joint analysis, development of an action plan, and formation/strengthening of local institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Participation is a right and not just a means </li></ul><ul><li>Participation may be conducive to the formation of groups and networks that continue to operate after your project is over </li></ul><ul><li>More … </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Multiple perspectives are sought and learning incorporated into process </li></ul><ul><li>Groups exercise control over local decisions and access to resources so that they have a stake in maintaining practices </li></ul><ul><li>While sustainability will be higher, conflicts may emerge </li></ul>
  8. 8. Self-mobilization <ul><li>• People participate by taking initiatives independent of external agents </li></ul><ul><li>They form networks through external resources but retain control over how resources are used </li></ul><ul><li>This mobilization may or may not challenge existing distributions of power </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal outcome is empowerment of marginalized groups such as women </li></ul>
  9. 9. Women’s participation will be promoted when women have been included in: <ul><ul><ul><li>defining the problem being addressed; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preparing the project proposal; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the membership of the project team; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all levels of decision-making. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Can women participate? Barriers: <ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s lack of authority in households, organizations and communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The social value of women’s lost labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s lack of mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s level of literacy and education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s lack of confidence or self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Will women participate? Barriers <ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of benefits from participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes of project workers towards women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role models of participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling of activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language and communication barriers </li></ul></ul></ul>

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