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PowerPoint Four


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  • 1. Manipulative Participation • Participation is simply a pretense • Participation occurs through representation on an advisory board, but these representatives but have no power • Women may be included in token ways, in order to ‘fill a quota’
  • 2. Passive Participation
    • People participate by being told what has been decided or has already happened
    • The power rests with ‘experts.’ It is generally assumed that experts know what women need or want
  • 3. Consultation
    • People are consulted or asked questions; experts define problems and control information gathering
    • Professionals are not obliged to act on people’s views; they may consult with ‘women’s representatives’
  • 4. Participation for Material Assets
    • People participate by contributing resources (such as knowledge or labor) in return for cash or other material benefits
    • People have no stake when the project ends so that sustainability is poor
  • 5. Functional Participation
    • Participation is seen as a means to achieve project goals
    • People may form groups to meet predetermined objectives
    • Project dynamics may be interactive and there may be shared decision-making, but major decisions tend to be made by the external agency
  • 6. Interactive Participation
    • People participate in joint analysis, development of an action plan, and formation/strengthening of local institutions
    • Participation is a right and not just a means
    • Participation may be conducive to the formation of groups and networks that continue to operate after your project is over
    • More …
  • 7.
    • Multiple perspectives are sought and learning incorporated into process
    • Groups exercise control over local decisions and access to resources so that they have a stake in maintaining practices
    • While sustainability will be higher, conflicts may emerge
  • 8. Self-mobilization
    • • People participate by taking initiatives independent of external agents
    • They form networks through external resources but retain control over how resources are used
    • This mobilization may or may not challenge existing distributions of power
    • The ideal outcome is empowerment of marginalized groups such as women
  • 9. Women’s participation will be promoted when women have been included in:
        • defining the problem being addressed;
        • preparing the project proposal;
        • the membership of the project team;
        • all levels of decision-making.
  • 10. Can women participate? Barriers:
        • Women’s lack of authority in households, organizations and communities
        • The social value of women’s lost labor
        • Women’s lack of mobility
        • Women’s level of literacy and education
        • Women’s lack of confidence or self-esteem
  • 11. Will women participate? Barriers
        • Perception of benefits from participation
        • Attitudes of project workers towards women
        • Role models of participation
        • Scheduling of activities
        • Language and communication barriers