Gender in Dairy value chain in Bangladesh SDVC Project CARE Bangladesh 4-Nov’2011 Presented by: Kakuly Tanvin Toufique Ahmed
SDVC Gender Distribution- At a glanceParticipants Total Number Women Avg. monthly income (W #) participantsParticipants 36400 (29745) 82% $13.27 (milk sales)Producer Groups (Excluding pilot) 1162 (524) 45%Farmer Leader 3425 (2443) 71%Milk Collector 308 (28) 9% $8 ($36)Livestock Health Worker 201 (45) 22% $81 ($246)Input Shop (ISC 3,CAS 28) 150 (31) 21% ISC = 3($129), CAS =28($ 30)No of Savings group 568 82%Total Savings $70444 82%Independent cow ownership 217 (27) 12.4%
Targeting achievement Producer Gender % Collector Gender %Percentile distribution of participant by Percentile distribution of trained Gender (Yr: 1-4) Collector by Gender (Yr: 1-4) (Except Pilot) Men Men 18% 91% Women 82% Women 9% FL Gender % LHW Gender %Percentile distribution of trained Farmer Percentile distribution of trained LHW by Leader by Gender (Yr: 1-4) Gender (Yr: 1-4) Men Men 29% 78% Women Women 71% 22%
Objective of SDVC-GAAP initiative• To explore and examine sustainable impacts on women and men’s asset acquisition, ownership,• Explore related impacts on household and community gender dynamics of the Dairy Value Chain project.
Project MethodologyQualitative Analysis Includes• Focused group discussion (FGD)• Life History Analysis• Women Barrier Checklist• Use Daily time use toolQuantitative analysis Includes• Questionnaire interview• Participatory Performance Tracking (PPT)• Staff progress report
Activities Completed Analyzed existing data to ascertain knowledge gaps about gender and assets Qualitative research tool has been developed and field tested. 14 focus group discussions facilitated covering around 250 SDVC producers. 18 semi structured interview done with individual participants. 2 separate gender related learning sessions was designed and implemented for the producers. Women barrier checklist has been prepared of the value chain actors and supporters. Different techniques to address those barriers are also documented for further use. Analysis done on daily HH role distribution Common variables in baseline and monitoring surveys were identified to analyze emerging trends. SDVC M&E linked MIS data with GIS data to demonstrate performance status geographically.
Qualitative Assessment Findings Focused Area Key FindingsAsset ownership Women can buy or own cattle, poultry & gold more easilypattern & dairyincome mgt. Cent percent can manage milk sales income 12.4% Women have individual cow ownership Women who owns cattle can take decisions on expenditure more easily.Dairy Management Workload increased but family members are sharing theand gender roles workloadAccess to input, Women now have easy access to training, credit & savingscapacity & Mkt. Have access to input and output market.Normative attitude Women still face difficulties buying big assetsand women barriers Inherit the lowest quality land and get the lowest shareProject impact Significant progress is seen in intangible assets Around 25% of participants reported an increase in cow ownership Women’s opinions are getting more preference in HH and community level 2.3% increase is seen in womens’ individual cow ownership
SDVC groups performance score (PPT) by groups’ gender Selection Year (1+2+3) (Aug2011)74 73 7272 71706866 66646260 Women only Mixed Men only Total PPT SCORE OUT OF 100
Producers FM Knowledge changed from starting month by gender (Knowledge : Knowledge score out of 10) Selection Year (1+2+3) Base Sep2011 % change 7.0 6.4 4.3 4.4 47% 58% Female MaleStarting month Definition: This means when M&E started collected GPF data collection after training from SDVC.FM : Farm management
% of SDVC groups engaged in savings by groups gender markup Selection Year (1+2+3) (as of Sept2011) 77% 66% 60% 60%Women only groups Mixed groups Men only groups Total
Average of total savings amount (US$) by groups gender markup Selection Year (1+2+3) (as of Sept2011) 128 123 124 50 Women only Mixed Men only Total
% of savings group used savings money by groups gender markup Selection Year (1+2+3) (Sept2011) 59% 54% 56% 17%Women only Mixed Men only Total
The effects of learning group gender composition on HH income Households that have female farm leaders and groups that are all women have significantly higher total HH income from dairy. F(13)=1108.9, p<.0001. . This relationship has been modeled using a linear mixed-effects model which controls for phase, year, size of herd, and includes random effects for learning group. 6.7Log of Total predicted monthly HH 6.6 6.5 6.4 income from Dairy 6.3 6.2 6.1 6 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 Female Farm Male Farm Women Only Mixed Learning Men Only Leader Leader Learning Group Group Learning Group Expected Income depending on gender of FL Expected Income depending on gender mix of group
Relationship between women owning cattle and women’s total knowledge scoreThere is a significant relationship between the gender of who owns the cattle and women’sknowledgescore. The Pearson correlation is .241, p<.01. And the one-way ANOVA F=486.74, p<.001
Relationship between women owning cattle and decisions to sell cattleThere is a significant relationship between the gender of who owns the cattle and whomakes the decision to sell cattle. The Pearson correlation is .46, p<.01. Cramer’s V (.464),p<.0001. Who Decides About Selling Cattle? 80% 73% 70% 60% 56% 50% 40% 30% 26% 20% 15% 12% 10% 2% 0% Self Husband Jointly HH Where Women Own Cattle HH Where Women Dont Own Cattle
Relationship between women owning cattle and permission to attend group and distance meetingsThere is a significant relationship between women owning cattle and needing permission to attendboth group meetings and distant meetings. The Pearson correlation for attending group meetingsis .65, p<.01. Chi-square (4) = 7031, p<.0001. The Pearson correlation for attending distant meetingsis .68, p<.001, Chi-square (4) = 7095, p<.0001. 100% 90% 90% 80% 77% 70% 60% 50% 48% 40% 34% 30% 20% 10% 0% Need Permission to attend Group Meeting Need Permission to Attend a Distant Meeting HH Where Women Own Cattle HH Where Women Dont Own Cattle
Challenge faced• Research on gender issue is very sensitive in the rural context. Participants didnt always want to provide the exact answer.• Baseline variables are not sufficiently gender focused to measure the women progress,• There was not a specific project milestone on gender asset changes.
What would have done differently• Strong platform of solidarity in the community.• Introduce successful women farmer leaders, LHW, Collector and entrepreneurs as model for others• Being reflective on women barriers in the field and address those accordingly• Take positive discrimination for women (e.g. No training fees )• Introduce Daily Time Use tool & Work with family member for motivating and reducing the work load of Women• Awareness campaign on milk consumption• Ensure access of Women to Input & Output marketT
Next Action• Continue Focused group discussion.• Continue gender based learning session for the producers• Conduct stakeholder workshop on WE issues• Life history analysis and women barrier checklist• Design Final evaluation with the gender related questions to track the progress.• Take assistance from IFPRI/ILRI to analyze project M&E data regarding gender asset.